CASE AGAINST ME: note, I will get back to this when I can for a more readable format...Meantime, this can be copied and pasted for your own use.

UPDATE 10/2/2020 - It is a heck of a lot of work, but I think I figured out how to undo what a hacker helped themself//selves to. Hopefully these links are restored. Now, it appears I have to go through every page and do the same thing. KEEP CALM, BETTER DAYS AHEAD.

added 14Aug2020: Before you read the Small Claims info from my experiences, Iwanted to share my recent effort to get Blogger to fix what they altered: THEONLY THING LISTED ON MY BLOGGER ACCOUNT NOW, WHICH IS SUPPOSED TO GIVE MEFORMATTING OPTIONS, ETC, IS “REPORT” SO I SELECTED IT AND ANSWERED THE FOLLOWINGQUESTIONS. 8/14/2020 What is URL of the post you want to report? * THIS IS MYBLOGPOST AND I AM THE ONE BEING ABUSED! Which community guideline do you believeit violates? REGULATED GOODS AND SERVICES We remove • Content that promotes orsells regulated goods and services, such as alcohol, gambling, pharmaceuticalsand unapproved supplements, tobacco, fireworks, weapons, or health/medicaldevices. Help us understand more about why you are reporting it * This is MYblogpost and your company has nefariously altered the format WITHOUT SENDING MEANY COMMUNICATION WHICH MAY REMOTELY JUSTIFY YOUR ACTIONS! THIS IS A SERVICE!YOU HAVE NO RIGHT TO FRAUD PEOPLE'S PROPERTY! How did you feel when you saw thispost? YOU ALTERED MY FORMATS, YOU TOOK AWAY THE PICTURES AND THIS VIOLATES ME,THE AUTHOR! INSTEAD OF PROCESSING WHAT I JUST FILLED IN, THEY GIVE ME THIS POPUPAND REQUEST ME TO SAY OKAY WHICH IS BULLSHIT AND I WON’T OKAY IT! Something wentwrong and we were unable to submit your response (end) NOTE, I HAD NOTHING TO DOWITH THE CHANGE IN FORMAT - SOMEONE THROUGH THIS BLOGGER COMPANY, OWNED BYGOOGLE, HAS DONE THIS - MOST LIKELY IN A PAY-TO-PLAY SCHEME PAID BY DIRTYPOLITICIANS WHO COULD CARE LESS ABOUT THE LAW! THEY TOOK MY BLOG DOWN AND i LETENOUGG OF THE RIGHT PEOPLE KNOW AND WAS ABLE TO RECOVER IT AFTER 18 MONTHS OFSPORATICALLY TRYING. THEY STOLE MY DOMAIN, WHICH i PAID FOR. THEY USED MITTROMNEY'S CAPITAL ONE, CLAIMING i PAID FOR IT THROUGH THAT ACCOUNT. YET TO COVERTHEIR ASSES, CAPITAL ONE IS GIVING ME EXCELLENT CREDIT NOW. wELL, MY ACCOUNTWILL BE PAID OFF SOON IN A MONTH OR SO AND i WILL NOT USE IT ANYMORE AND TELLTHEM TO CLOSE THE ACCOUNT. THERE IS A CAPITAL ONE CASE ON RECORD AGAINST ME EVENTHOUGH THE CASE WAS WITHDRAWN! TARGETED PEOPLE HAVE A HARD LIFE HERE AND NOT TOTHEIR FAULT. DON'T GIVE UP. HOLD THEM ACCOUNTABLE. LOOK UP THE RULES OF COURTONLINE, PRACTICE BOOK CHAPTER 24, I BELIEVE. THERE ARE ALSO STATE LAWS. SEARCHTHROUGH GOOGLE SCHOLAR. I AM SORRY FOR THIS FORMATTING, BUT MY HANDS ARE TIED.THEY WON'T EVEN LET ME SEND THEM A MESSAGE - IT WAS REMOVED. IT GOES TO SHOW YOUHOW SPINLELESS THE POLITICIANS ARE - AND THEY HAVE BEEN LIKE THIS TO SOME DEGREEEVERY SINCE THIS COUNTRY SIGNED A US CONSTITUTION, MOST OF THEM WITH THEIRFINGERS CROSSED BEHIND THEIR BACKS. YET THE CORRUPTION AND CRIMES ARE RAMPANTNOW. COPY WHATEVER YOU WANT ON THIS AD-FREE BLOG AND SHARE WHATEVER YOU WANT.MAKE IT YOUR OWN STATMENT. - THIS IS AD-FREE. i CREATED A TABLE OF CONTENTS,ALPHABETIZED YET BLOGGER CHANGED THE FORMAT SO YOU CANNOT ACCESS IT AND TOGGLEWITH LINKS. i HAD THE TOC LINK ON EACH BLOGPOST WHEN MY DOMAIN WASAPPLEOFMYEYE.ORG I HAVE FIXED AS MANY AS i CAN BUT HAD TO WORK ON OTHER MATTERS.AND THEN BLOGGER ALTERED THE FORMATTING AND I DO ALL I CAN TO CHANGE IT, REVERTIT TO ORIGINAL FORMATTING, ETC. NOTHING WORKS. 8/12/2020 Case No.NNH-CV-20-6105010-S : State of Connecticut LNV FUNDING, LLC ASSIGNEE OFSYNCHRONY BANK : SMALL CLAIMS COURT VS ANNE M. BRADLEY : August 4, 2020DEFENDANT’S TABLE OF SIMILAR CASES IN ACTIVE STATUS DRAFT – NOT SUBMITTED INCOURT AND NEEDS EDITING AS WELL AS MORE CASE INFORMATION Case No. Case NameAmount Claimed Notes Date of Affidavit Answer Date & Date of Writ AnswerFile Date Note, all cases begin with NNH-CV20; all located at the SuperiorCourt, New Haven, CT Date of Affidavit is SUPPOSED TO BE same as date of Writ;Writ cannot be processed if it is signed more than 30 days prior to submissioninto court! Sec 24-24 It is illegal for the court to enter appearances ofdefendants who have not yet appeared! It is a violation of privacy rights toenter personal information on PUBLIC RECORD without the appearance of thatparty! Sec 24-24 is written poorly, deceptively. It REQUIRES the Writ andAffidavit to be the same date, yet a segment indicates: A SMALL CLAIMS WRIT ANDNOTICE OF SUIT SIGNED AND SWORN TO BY THE PLAINTIFF OR REPRESENTATIVE Can beused as both Affidavit and Writ Note! And affidavit is different from a Writ! AWrit is a COURT ORDER. That is in the Black’s Law Dictionary. Politicians don’tcare – they play “catch me if you can” too! NO BURDEN OF PROOF IS MET WITH ANYOF THESE CASES! PROVIDING LEDGER INFORMATION OF PAYMENTS AND PURCHASES ISDELIBERATELY AVOIDED! It is UNCONSTITUTIONAL to make a law which allows acreditor to WAIT UP TO SIX YEARS BEFORE COLLECTING; yet only provides one yearto the alleged debtor to complain! The intent of the lawmakers is obviouslynefarious, self-serving! SMALL CLAIM FORM IF IT IS NOTARIZED AND STAMPED WITH ANOTARY STAMP IT MAY SERVE AS A WRIT And AFFIDAVIT; IN FACT IF THE SMALL CLAIMFORM THEY USE IS REQUIRED TO BE COMPLETED AS SUCH AND DEFECTIVE IF IT ISN’T;THEREFORE ANOTHER REASON AFORESAID CASE HAS NO MERIT BECAUSE A NOTARY ISREQUIRED TO SIGN IT – NOT JUST A WITNESS. The court has allowed two versions ofthe SMALL CLAIM FORM to be processed; the older version does not requiredocumentation that a letter was sent to the alleged debtor one month prior tothe small claim. This requirement for a letter is not substantiated by law. ANOTICE OF SUITE IS REQUIRED. Mike Lawlor has made the Judicial Systemadditionally corrupted; protecting the crooks – and as defendant just typedthis, she got a Microsoft popup – another inference of threat since many timeswhen she gets these popups something terrible happens. “The Writ MAY serve as anaffidavit if it is NOTARIZE” according to Sec 24-24 of Connecticut PracticeBook, which makes no sense since a WRIT is an order of the court; AND since AnAffidavit of Debt has to provide BURDEN OF PROOF and is expected to beaccompanied by Purchases and Payments History – of course, which they never dosince most or all of these cases have no intent to be legitimate on its face.They can just rely on judges to “push them through” REINVENTION OF THE PURPOSEOF NOTARY Attorneys within the court have even claimed they cannot notarizeanything, nor can an attorney; that is why they provide a notary in thecourthouse; who also serves as the Court Service Center Clerk. Yet theConnecticut laws and rules flipflop on this – seemingly to plug it in when theyfeel like it. Commissions of a Notary expire and the expiration date and stampare required when they notarize. The Stillman Law Firm does not notarize any oftheir small claims and scribble in place of where a notary would sign, with noindication who that person is, what their title is, and whether or not they haveany right, usually defining themselves as “Commissioner of the Court” – which bythe way, is what a Chief Clerk or Chief Deputy Clerk circle when THEY sign suchforms – thereby indicating an OUTSOURCING OF THE COURT and how can an attorneybe chief cook and bottle washer?

(Video) Connecticut Eviction Process - Easy Instructions

There is no SEPARATION OF POWERS. MODUSOPERANDI BY ATTORNEYS, THE COURT 6105395 Midland Credit Mananagement, LLC vRivera, Edgardo $1,604.69 Schreiber Law LLC A – 10/26/2019 7/20/2020 Uses ProHac Vice W - 5/13/2020 No Answer Appearance/Plaintiff No Disposition MIDLAND isa 6/29/2020 Sherman Company

6105396 LVNV Funding, LLC v $ 670.96 Schreiber LawLLC Montes, Frankie 7/20/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – 5/7/2020 No AnswerAppearance/Plaintiff W – 6/2/2020 No Disposition LVNV is a 6/29/2020 ShermanCompany

6105397 LVNV Funding, LLC v $ 966.16 Schreiber Law LLC Reyes, Jahira7/20/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – 5/6/2020 Judgment Appearance/Plaintiff W – 6/2/2020Signed by Def LVNV is a 6/29/2020 Sherman Company Plaintiff used Diff JurisNumber on Mot for Judgment. Active Appearance; admission 6/26/2017

6105398MIDLAND Funding, LLC vs $1,339.93 Schreiber Law LLC Mchayle, Pauline 7/20/2020Pro Hac Vice A – 1/14/2020 No Answer Appearance W – 6/20/2020 No DispositionMIDLAND is a Sherman Company

6105399 LVNV Funding, LLC vs $ 563.32 Schreiber LawLLC Rinakama, Ratu 7/20/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – 4/22/2020 No Answer Appearance W –5/27/2020 No Disposition LVNV is a 6/29/2020 Sherman Company

(Video) Landlord & Tenant: What to do in Court (Tips and Information)

6105400 LVNVFunding, LLC vs $2,731,94 Schreiber Law LLC Witherspoon, Barbara 7/20/2020 ProHac Vice A - Def will pay $10/mo Appearance W – 5/17/2020 No Disposition LVNV isa Sherman Company

6105003 Med-Aid LLC vs $ 194.84 Eric Herman Opin Al-Labban,Suzanne 7/09/2020 Active Appearance A – 5/8/2020 No Answer This case used SmallW – 5/8/2020 6/18/2020 Claim Form to Serve as Writ. Filed over 30 days beyonddate of Small Claim Form.

6105004 New Haven Radiology vs $ 100.00 Eric HerminOpin Raskevicius, Vida 7/09/2020 Active Appearance A – 5/19/2020 No Answer (sameas above) W – 5/19/2020 6/18/2020 6105005 Second Round Sub, LLC $ 740.08Stillman Law Office Assignee of Comenity Capital vs 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Ana RFalero No Answer Comenity Capital is A – 1/27/2020 6/18/2020 A Sherman W –4/13/2020 - NOT NOTARIZED, DEFECTIVE Company And Most likely Second Round Sub isas well

6105006 Second Round Sub, LLC $ 825.20 Stillman Law Office Assignee ofComenity Bank vs 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Wilkins Tammy No Answer (Same as6105005) A – 12/19/2019 6/18/2020 W - 04/30/2020 – NOT NOTARIZED, DEFECTIVE6105007 Second Round Sub, LLC $ 789.67 Stillman Law Office Assignee of ComenityBank vs 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Brooks, Alfonzie Judgment Agreed (Same as6105005) A – 9/20/2020 6/18/2020 W – 5/5/2020 – NOT NOTARIZED, DEFECTIVE

6105008LVNV Funding LLC $ 642.06 Stillman Law Office As Successor in Interest To7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Credit One Bank vs Judgment Agreed Companies are owned VsJavins, Stacey 6/18/2020 By Sherman Companies A – 4/8/2020 W – 5/5/2020 – NOTNOTARIZED, DEFECTIVE

(Video) Connecticut's New Family Court Process

6105009 LVNV Funding LLC $ 927.14 Stillman Law OfficeAssignee of Credit One Bank 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Vs Innacel, Dianna DebtAgreed Companies are owned by A – 4/8/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies W –5/5/2020

6105011 LVNV Funding LLC $ 1, 194.17 Stillman Law Office Assignee ofCapital One, NA Judgment Agreed Company is owned by Vs Langley, Folayan6/18/2020 Sherman Companies A – 4/8/2020 Pro Hac Vice W – 5/5/2020

6105012 LVNVFunding LLC $ 811.54 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Synchrony Bank vs 7/09/2020Pro Hac Vice Frashuer, Donna Debt Agreed Company is owned by A – 4/8/20206/18/2020 Sherman Companies W – 5/5/2020 - DEFECTIVE SMALL CLAIM FORM, NOTNOTARIZED

6105013 LVNV Funding, LLC $ 723.07 Stillman Law Office Assignee ofCredit One Bank vs 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Delgado, Avangeline No Answer Companyis owned by A – 12/23/2019 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies W – 5/14/2020 - DEFECTIVESMALL CLAIM FORM, NOT NOTARIZED

6105014 LVNV Funding, LLC $2,272.00 Stillman LawOffice As Successor In Interest To 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Credit One Bank NoAnswer Both Companies owned A – 4/8/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies W –5/5/2020 – DEFECTIVE SMALL CLAIM FORM, NOT NOTARIZED


6105015 LVNV Funding, LLC $870.03 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Credit One Bank, NA 7/09/2020 Pro HacVice Vs White, Naomi Answer Both Companies owned A – 4/1/2020 6/18/2020 bySherman Companies W – 5/5/2020 Judgment Pending

6105016 Crown Asset Management,LLC $ 857.76 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Comenity Bank vs 7/9/2020 Pro HacVice Sengsavang, Anita No Answer Both Companies owned A – 4/1/2020 NoDisposition by Sherman Companies W – 5/5/2020 6/18/2020

6105017 LVNV Funding LLC$1,160.96 Stillman Law Office Assignee of CitiBank, NA vs 7/9/2020 Pro Hac ViceWestley, Kenneth no Answer LVNV owned by A – 3/26/2020 6/18/2020 ShermanCompanies W – 5/5/2020 No Disposition

6105018 Second Round Sub, LLC $ 965.95Stillman Law Office Assignee of Comenity Bank vs 7/9/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – NONE!No Answer Both probably owned by W – 5/5/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies

6105019 LVNV Funding LLC $ 619.12 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Credit OneBank, NA 7/9/2020 Pro Hac Vice A - 3/31/2020 Def Disputes Both owned by W –5/5/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies

(Video) Orlando Attorney Refuses Police Request to Search Car

6105020 LVNV Funding LLC $ 840.63 StillmanLaw Office Assignee of Credit One Bank NA 7/9/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – 3/31/2020Def Ret Answer - Owned by Sherman W – 5/5/2020 NOT SIGNED Companies 6/18/2020….to be continued This is all I can do now, Blogger has messed with my blog sothey can DISRUPT MY EFFORTS TO SHARE INFORMATION THAT REFLECTS ABSOLUTEVIOLATION OF RIGHTS, ABUSE OF POWER, CAREER CRIMINAS, ETC! COPY AND PASTE THISIF YOU CAN - IT MAY AUTOMATICALLY FORMAT##################################################################################################################################

CASE AGAINST ME: note, I will get back to this when I can for a more readable format...Meantime, this can be copied and pasted for your own use.

Case No. NNH-CV-20-6105010-S : State of Connecticut LNV FUNDING, LLC ASSIGNEE OFSYNCHRONY BANK : SMALL CLAIMS COURT VS ANNE M. BRADLEY : JUNE 29, 2020 July13,2020 AMENDEND TIMELINE BY DEFENDANT FIRST SECTION – EXCEPTION Page 1-25/5/2020 SMALL CLAIMS WRIT, NOT PROCESSED BY COURT (NO STAMP, NO DATE, NO DOCKETNUMBER) Rules of Court indicate it has to be filed within 30 days of signing. a.The Writ is supposed to be first presented to the court WITHIN 30 DAYS OFSIGNING IT. – Neither were done. b. Certification of Service is to be RETURNEDto the court AND BE MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH Rules of Certification of Service –this was not done; TO INCLUDE MAIL DELIVERY. Return address on Priority Envelopewas NOT THE PLAINTIFF; the Priority Mail envelope (PB 24-10) had no trackinginformation when the Defendant checked it the same day it was taken out of hermailbox at her residency. Printout should be in this Appendix, paginated.Defendant will be providing an electronic version of all documents for the courtto use, particularly searching on Word documents such as this one. Defendant isunable to prepare an electronic version this day, 7/13/2020, because herexternal drive for CD roms is once again stolen out of her apartment. This isthe second time which this has occurred. Amazon removed these two purchases fromher Buying History and therefore Defendant would not make another purchase fromAmazon due to the altering of her account information for obvious nefariouspurposes. c. The Court should not have accepted the Small Claim due to a and bd. There was no COMPLAINT, NO NOTICE OF SUIT, served on the Defendant (PB 24-10)and there was no electronic delivery confirmation – there was only a typeddocument by the attorney which the court had no right to accept on a documentwhich had no cited rule or law which gave Plaintiff any legal right to submit,particularly not even signed to certify who the preparer was. The clerk isrequired to document a VALIDATED Return of Service. The court failed to do itsjob, causing the defendant to have to proceed with her defense, which has causedundue stress and hardship. e. ANSWER DATE was unfairly set at the LEAST amountof time, (PB 24-12) which greatly impaired defendant’s efforts to timely submither Answer as well as Counter Claim with Fee Waiver – yet these wereaccomplished, noting to the court that it would be necessary to amend documentswhich would be presented forthwith. f. Aforesaid Appendix is not consistent withthe Defendant’s intent to place all documents in chronological order WITH aTimeline reflecting each page chronologically as well. This is primarily due toCYBER CRIME and unfair demand by the court to cause the defendant to prepareAnswer and Special Defenses as well as Counterclaim two weeks from the date shewas notified that a Small Claim was entered into court, despite the fact theSmall Claim papers by the Plaintiff were ILLEGITAMATE. g. The Court is REQUIREDto assign this case as a SMALL CLAIM DOCKET, yet without any explanation, placedthis case in CIVIL COURT. DEFENDANT RETAINS THE RIGHT TO THEREFORE INCREASEAMOUNT OF COUNTERCLAIM SUIT. Page 3 MISSING Page 4-5 6/12/2020 DefendantResponded to the Priority Mail “Documents with No Case Number. Small Claims canbe filed electronically. I’ll be happy to counter sue if you’re so stupid toprocess. These documents show malice and forethought.” Pages 6-7 MISSING Page 8-9 6/18/2020 Answer Form Completed by The Court, sent to Defendant JD-CV-40A1Defendant refused to sign this and claimed the Court had no legal right toprepare such document. In fact, the document was most likely prepared by thePlaintiff, who failed to even enter its appearance, most likely to stay secretsince its status was “F” which is pro hac vice and apparently the Court allowsit to be a “blank check” instead. Defendant prepared an Answer Form used inCIVIL COURT due to the Small Claims Court withholding this form for defendantsto prepare. Another ILLEGAL ACTION BY THE COURT; most likely manipulated byAttorney Michael Lawlor, who former Governor Malloy created a new position ANDdepartment for since he lost re-election as state representative for East Haven,and no longer taught at the University of New Haven. The department was named“Extra-Judicial” which defendant claims should have been reason to impeach GovMalloy – yet the politicians in this state failed to act on this and many otherillegalities – including the PLANNED FAKE SANDY HOOK SHOOTING WHICH CAUSEDPEOPLE TO DIE OF HEART ATTACKS, STROKES BECAUSE THEY BELIEVED IT. Defendant’sPrepared and Signed Form, JD-CV-108, was presented to the court timely, on theAnswer Date, along with attaching the Affidavit of which defendant used torespond to since the plaintiff failed to serve her a complaint. Defendant askedthe court by phone if they received it as well as the other documentation, andthe court refused to respond. Due to the fact that the saved document did notsave (Cyber Crime) Defendant prepared a SECOND signed Answer to submit today,July 13, 2020, should the court deny it was delivered by the Defendant. Originalis presented separately. yet a copy is also presented, and paginated as 9a-9cPage 10-13 7/9/2020 Defendant attempted to print the DEFENDANT’S ANSWER ANDSPECIAL DEFENSES FORM, JD-CV-401A, which was taken out of the Court System forpublic access. Pages 14-25 7/9/2020 Defendant made searches on Plaintiff todetermine its legitimacy of appearance; or, as in this case, lack thereof. Page26-29 6/10/2020 Priority Mail Envelope used by Plaintiff and various searchedinformation made by Defendant, to include tracking; or as in this case, lackthereof. Page 30-31 6/10/2020 Defendant searched for Small Claims cases usingher name as well as the return address on Priority Mail: KellermenInvestigation, located in the Chicago, IL area. Pages 32-44 6/23/2020 Defendantsearched for information on REAL relationship with Synchrony Bank (which wasfounded on or BEFORE 2006, having made a large contract with PayPal) and GEMoney; particularly since the Plaintiff described the relationship as a“spinoff” of GE Money, which has no legal or business value. Defendant wasinformed by GE Money that they were selling all active and inactive accounts toSynchrony Bank. During this time of transitioning, defendant experienced muchdifficulty with her account management by GE Money. Defendant discovered thesame person who was moved to take charge of these accounts was transferred overto Synchrony Bank and given a CEO position. Management of her Care Creditaccount proved to be nefarious quickly; Defendant had a ZERO balance andinstructed GE Money AND later Synchrony to close the card. Rather, theycontinued to keep it in the books and claimed the defendant owed over $1,000which was FRAUDULENT, as already presented to the court on July 9, 2020. SECONDSECTION 1. 5/26/2009 Case Lookup includes the following: (a) Capital One Bank vBradley SCC-134960 Capital One Promptly Withdrew it yet the court continued toresurface the case for at least ten years. Page 45 (b) Spruill V BradleySCC-227520 This case was a fraudulent means by the landlord to steal more moneyfrom the defendant-tenant. The Small Claims Court had no legal right to allow itin court based on the fact the landlord was attempting to illicitly evict herand she was paying rent into court. Despite claiming this in the Special Answerand Defenses, the Small Claims Court got their kicks leaving it active. Thelandlord did not even show up for the hearing, yet several bullying cityofficials did as if it was a housing hearing. This was clearly on back rent onlyand there was no back rent. Defendant was lawfully paying rent into court anddefending herself on a unlawful attempt to evict her, yet the housing courtcontinued it for a year to devise tricks to evict her. They did not even followtheir own Rules of Court, as a means to dodge the Emergency Motion made into theUS Supreme Court. A marshal smashed in her door with a sledge hammer rather thanwait for police. Defendant’s ADT alarm went off and the marshal yelled at her toturn it off. She refused and the marshal walked over and used a code, obviouslyproving he was the one who was illegally entering her apartment, includingkilling cats in her clean apartment. Page 45 (c) Bradley v Barber – thisattorney was retained and he did nothing, stealing her $2,300. She demanded itback and he refused. She filed a case against him and it took a very long timejust to have a hearing. In summary, there was no administration of the law. Thejudge refused to look at documents saying it was none of her business. The judgedid not care to hold a legitimate hearing. Later, when Attorney Barber filedbankruptcy, the $2300 was listed as a debt. Defendant was listed as a creditor.Again, the crooked judge of the Bankruptcy Court was only serving her own wantsby removing defendant as a creditor just to help out Attorney Barber who shouldhave been arrested for embezzlement. Page 45 (d) Bradley v. Public Storage.Defendant paid her rent every month and one month they decided to “lose” hermoney order and deny ever getting it in the mail, despite she mailed it the sameway. This is about being a TARGETED INDIVIDUAL by the corrupted beurocracy whichshould not be allowed to have any power in this society since they are careercriminals. Public Storage began charging her late fees, in excess of $200 eventhough she proved to them she purchased the money order, the money came out ofher account, and they had no right to threaten and charge her when she continuedto pay her rent and assured them after USPS does their investigation, whichtakes 60 days, they would reissue a check. Public Storage then stole all of herpossessions out of her unit and would not give them back to her. Defendant wasattending Southern Connecticut State University and did not have time to take abus to call police, which most likely wouldn’t help since the Police Chief’sdaughter once broad sided her vehicle and she sued yet they attorneys sheretained were frauding records and doing other things to sabatoge her rights andshe removed them from the case and settled on her own. Defendant settled out ofcourt after her father was killed by medical staff, through the w ants of adeceitful brother who enjoyed making him die. Saying it was a religiousexperience. The above is relayed to emphasize that the defendant has been aTARGETED INDIVIDUAL for many years by a society which is far from being free –it has turned into a socialist society which evades from laws as a matter ofpractice, rather than administer them. Page 45 2. 3/24/2014 Synchrony Bank/CareCredit Mismanagement – attempt to charge defendant $1,000 which was neverserviced/invalid. Upon selling the PAID OFF ACCOUNT to True Accord, they triedto collect on it. THE CARD WAS PAID OFF IN 2012 AND DEFENDANT NO LONGER USED ITSINCE GE MONEY SOLD IT TO SYNCHRONY BANK. Page 46-48 2a. 6/ /2014 This may havebeen deleted by a hacker – unsure at this time 3. 9/25/2014 Letter fromResurgent Capital Services, PO Box 1410, Troy, MI 48099-1410. Claiming Defendanthad a Citibank (South Dakota) card with balance of 818.30 DEFENDANT NEVER HAD ACITIBANK CARD AND DEFENDANT HAS NEVER HAD ANY INTERRACTION WITH CITIBANK. Copyof Defendant’s note on the letter: How many accounts are mishandled like this? Inever had a Citibank Account? Additionally, these are FALSE account receivablesto include in tax reporting…Address: PO Box 19034, Greenville, SC 29602-9034.Resurgent claims they along with EIGHT other companies have a right to herpersonal information on FRAUDULENT BILLING PRACTICES which all fall under“Sherman Companies” Page 48a Note: 6/23/2020 Defendant received no emails fromResurgent based on her search. (one page) Defendant discovered the Following onResurgent Capital Services, another fraudulent company attached to the fakeaccount. 9 Results Found Resurgent Capital Services L.P. Greenville, SCResurgent is here to help with flexible payment options and educational ...1-888-665-0374; P.O. Box 10497 Greenville, SC 29603; Main Office NMLS ID#2301.NO PHYSICAL ADDRESS! BBB search: 55 Beattie Pl Ste 110Greenville, SC 29601-5115 (864) 248-8700 BUSINESSSEARCH, STATE OF SC: BUSINESS DISSOLVED! Appendix E Officers:Timothy M. Grant , Scott Kester and 4 others Resurgent Capital, LLC SanFrancisco, CA Officers: Jeremy David Hinman , Eric Bassman Resurgent CapitalServices L.P. Cincinnati, OH Officers: Judith Lynn Resurgent Capital ServiceSaint Paul, MN Officers: Jessica Hagemann Resurgent Capital Services L.P.Resurgent Capital Services Greenville, SC Resurgent Capital, LLC Maple Plain, MNResurgent Capital Services Limited Partnership Greenville, SC Officers: AlegisGroup LLC Resurgent Capital Services Pr LLC Greenville, SC Officers: ResurgentCapital Services L.P. RESURGENT CAPITAL SERVICES L.P. Active Cincinnati, OH(888)665-0374 Resurgent Capital Services, LP -> Judith Lyn -> ShermanFinancial Group 8600 Governors Hill Dr, Cincinnati. OH 45249 Printed list of 4pages from following source: Business Entities Online 4. 9/25/2014 Defendantmade a search on Sherman Companies on 7/5/2020. The Credit Infocenter reportsthat Sherman Companies include the following: Fieldstone Assit Management, LLCGranite Asset Management, LLC Limestone Asset Management, LLC LVNY Funding, LLCPYOD, LLC Resurgent Capital Services, LP Resurgent Capital Services, PR, LLC SFGREO, LLC Sherman Acquisition II Limited Partnership Sherman Acquisition, LLCSerhma Acquisition Limited Partnership Serhman Acquisition TA LP Tradd Street,LLC AND, according to a court order, Case No. DFR-FY2012-012, the following areSherman Companies LVNV Funding, LLC Resurgent Capital Services LimitedPartnership, aka Resurgent Capital Services, LP, f/k/a Alegis Group, LP ShermanOriginator LLC Alegis Group, LLC Sherman Financial Group, LLC Sherman CapitalMarkets, LLC Sherman Acquisition LTD Partnership, aka Sherman Acquisition, LPSherman Acquisition, LLC Sherman Acquisition H Limited Partnership, aka ShermanAcquisition II LP Sherman Acquisition II General Partnership LLC ShermanCapital, LLC Meeting Street Partners II Inc Benjamin W. Navarro Leslie G.Gutierrez Scott E. Silver Kevin P. Branigan Robert A. Roderick 5. Defendantprinted the first 5 pages of a 40-page court document – which is enough tovalidate that this company is involved with nefarious activity and obviously areprotected by the Elite Secret Society Members who break law after law and claimthey own the USA. 9 pages total. Full document can be obtained by searching thecourt case number on Google. Pages 49-53 6. List of Sherman Companies from thefollowing Source: Credit Info Center Pages 54-59 Page 60 MISSING . Page 60MISSING 7. 3/1/2019 Email from “Anne, Please set up apayment arrangement” “LVNV funding LLC (owner of your Synchrony Bank ( Store Card balance) would like to prevent legal review on your pastdue amount. 2 pages Claiming due: $875.90 THERE WAS NO PAST-DUE AMOUNT. THIS ISEXTORTION! 3/1/2019 Letter from Synchrony Bank, PO Box 965064, Orlando, FL32896-5064. Re: Account No. ending in 3809 (which has no value to the defendant,particularly since most or all of financial records have been stolen out of herapartment, to verify) Acct Bal at time of sale: $1083.08 (= FRAUD, since noacknowledgement of “time of sale” and since Synchrony purchased the GE Moneyaccounts, this letter is deliberately deceptive. DEFENDANT STOPPED USING CARECREDIT AFTER A DENTAL CLINIC CHARGED $1,000 AND CAME UP WITH A CROOKED PAYMENTPLAN THAT WAS WELL BEYOND WHAT SHE COULD AFFORD. DEFENDANT TOLD THEM THAT THEYCANNOT CHARGE CARE CREDIT IN ANTICIPATION OF SERVICE, THEY HAVE TO CHARGE THEMWHEN THE SERVICE IS PERFORMED. CARE CREDIT INFORMED THE DEFENDANT THAT THISCHARGE WAS REVERSED. DEFENDANT’S CREDIT LIMIT WAS $1,000 YET DID NOT WANT TO USETHIS CARD AGAIN (2012) AND BELIEVED SHE WAS CHEATED BY NOT BEING ABLE TO GETDENTAL INSURANCE. AS OBAMACARE WAS FAILING, ONE COMPANY CAME FORWARD OFFERINGDENTAL/EYE PLAN WHICH DEFENDANT OBTAINED IN 2014. AFTER ONE YEAR THEY SAID THEYWOULD PAY FOR A LARGE PORTION OF CROWNWORK, YET THEY DID NOT AND THOUGH SHE HADIT FOR TWO+ YEARS, THEY ONLY SENT HER ONE CHECK FOR $51.00 AND GAVE ONE PAYMENTOF $51.00 TO A DENTIST WHO FAILED TO APPLY IT AS A CREDIT AND ALTERED CHARGES TOABSORB THE CHECK. AS IT TURNED OUT, THIS DENTAL CLINIC WAS PART OF THE DR.DENTAL CLINIC AND DEFENDANT STOPPED THEIR SERVICES UPON DISCOVERING THAT DENTALINSURANCE PLANS WERE MADE READILY AVAILABLE THROUGH INSURANCE COMPANIES AND SHERETAINED REAL INSURANCE AGAIN) The letter by Synchrony Bank is FRAUD. MISSING 8.7/9/2020 Email activity of Defendant’s email account. This is to validatetactics used to abuse, target Defendant: Contaminated water, False Alarm,‘Surrender To The Landlord’ which landlord defines as a waiver (Defendantrefused to sign it, claiming it was illegal) Additionally, defendant’s apartmentwas infested with fleas – either hand-carried in or pumped through theventilation of the HVAC unit. This has been done before. Defendant had tocontinuously wash her cupboards and use rubbing alcohol in a spray bottle.Additionally, she doubled the filter she placed in the vents, to make it harderfor them to pump in fleas, mites, fuitflies, etc. Page 75 9. 11/19/2016Validation of Synchrony Bank managing the previous GE Money Account. “FrequentDifficulty Paying Online” as noted on document. This was a typical cyber crime,interfering with payment on line. Defendant began sending them autopay checks.Page 76 10. Unk date Written on Document: “They refer to different addresses forcontact info! Phone numbers are usually fake – constant ads on phone numbers.”Defendant called numbers and got phone commercials or automated system with nosolution. 11. 3/1/2019 Email from True Accord. “LVNV Funding, LLC (owner of yourSynchrony Bank (serviced by Store Card) balance) would like toprevent legal review on your past due account, so they gave us the opportunityto assist you in a resolution. WHILE YOUR ACCOUNT IS STILL WITH US, we’d like towork with you to resolve your past due balance. Otherwise, LVNV Funding LLC(owner of your Synchrony Bank (serviced by Store Card) balance) willsend your account to an attorney for legal review as their next step. …Unlessyou notify us within 30 days after receiving this notice that your dispute thevalidity of this debt or any portion thereof, we will assume the debt isvalid….Defendant responded 3/2/2019 claiming “I paid what I owed in full threeyears ago! And you send me this now? Do you know what FRAUD means? That’s whatyou are doing! I don’t have an account with you!” At no point did they fulfillBURDEN OF PROOF. Pages 78-79 12. 3/2/2020 Defendant’s response to True Accord “Ipaid in full three years ago!...Do you know what FRAUD means?...You claim to beSynchrony but use as your email reply WHEN I selectreply!” Page 80 3/5/2019 Notice from FINANCIAL RECOVERY SERVICES, INC., PO Box385908, Minneapolis, MN 55438-5908; which states: “current creditor: LVNVFunding, LLC, Acct No. ending in 3809; date of last payment: 7/10/2017. Totalbalance $1083.08. Note, they also use the following as a return address: Dept813 (no business name), PO Box 4115, Concord, CA 94524. “Please be advised thatLVNV FUNDING LLC the current creditor-debt purchaser has purchased the accountreferenced above AND IT HAS BEEN ASSIGNED TO OUR OFFICE…” Bill Collector hires abill collector to do what? Hire another bill collector? THEY DO NOT HAVE ANYJUSTIFICATION OF THE BALANCE! THE ACCOUNT WAS PAID IN FULL! 3/1/2019 Email fromTRUE ACCORD, which claimed to have taken the Synchrony Bank Account whichdefendant had paid off after she refused the card anymore due to FRAUDULENTBILLING PRACTICES by Synchrony Bank. Stating, “We have logged your dispute foryou, and your account will be RETURNED to LVNV Funding, LLC” Preparer of emailwas “Jon V” Appendix E 13. 3/1/2019 True Accord Email (NOT LVNV!) “This is afollow-up to your previous request Contact: Daryl Washington Pages 81-8312. 14.3/10/2020 #112436 Re: Thank you Anne. Defendant was not thanking them, nor didshe do anything for them to thank her, unless they were finally confirming theyobtained her letter itemizing all purchases and payments. Defendant demandedTHEY FULFILL BURDEN OF PROOF, PARTICULARLY SINCE THEY RECEIVED HER ITEMIZEDLETTER OF PURCHASES AND PAYMENTS. NOTE, AT THIS POINT, LVNV CLAIMED THEYPURCHASED THE ACCOUNT FROM TRUE ACCORD, EFFECTIVE FEBRUARY 2020. Pages 84-85 15.4/8/2020 “Affidavit of Facts” is a one-page document Prepared by “PamelaJohnson” with no address or title; Notarized by Arlah Klugh, Commission Expires2-12-2021, State of South Carolina. Claiming Synchrony Bank of PO Box 105972,Atlanta, GA 30348; Sold the account to Sherman Originator, LLC of PO Box 10486,Greenville, SC 29603 . This was included with the Small Claims Documents issuedto the Small Claim Court, which Defendant printed on 6/24/2020 after receivingonly a prepared “Answer and Special Defense” form in the mail. The Affidavit hasbeen responded to in Answer And Special Defenses. NOTE, THIS DOCUMENT ISDEFECTIVE DUE THE TO FACT THAT IT WAS NOT PREPARED BY OR SIGNED BY EITHER PARTYTO THE CASE FOR AUTHENTICITY. Defendant still responded to it on the pretensethat the form is FRAUDULENT. Page 85a, 191 (copy) NOTE: This document is whatDefendant used to create Answer and Special Defenses, coupled with COUNTERCLAIM16. 4/29/2020 Fraudulent Collections on Fingerhut account, which was paid infull, yet LVNV purchased the account to pursue collections; refusing to satisfyBURDEN OF PROOF. Various dates. Pages 86 – 95, 202-215 17. 6/8/2020 Defendantsubmitted detailed Petition: Remove Trump Now. Printed draft added to thisAppendix. Pages 96-104 18. REMINDER: PLAINTIFF ADMITS PRIORITY MAIL WAS PLACEDIN DEFENDANT’S MAILBOX THE FOLLOWING DAY, June 9, 2020. Defendant claimed inCourt documents already submitted that this was REVENGE FOR TRUMP, the SatanicUnderground. 19. Also, on June 9, the landlord of the plaintiff, located at 360State Street, New Haven, CT placed a blank envelope in her door with anillegitimate document titled “Tenant Release, Waiver, and Assumption of RiskAgreement”. The document was not paginated. No laws were cited. AND since it wasan AGREEMENT, no signature by the landlord. Those were just a few of theelements wrong with the document. Pages 105-108 20. 6/10/2020 PRIORITY MAIL FROMUNKNOWN COMPANY. Flat Rate. USPS Tracking # 9405 5098 9864 2965 8588 39 Insidewere documents which had several companies referenced. All claiming thedefendant owed THEM $875.90, claiming that was an Amazon Card balance she neverpaid. Defendant was of the immediate belief that this was a bullying tactic byPresident Trump due to the Petition she submitted to Congress, Senate, and hisExecutive Office. The documents had no legal value. They were not stamped in tocourt. Defendant checked for tracking information. There was none. Defendantchecked to see if the Plaintiff was registered in Connecticut. The plaintiff wasnot registered. The plaintiff presumed the Small Claims Office would deny thesmall claim lawsuit due to insufficiency of service BEFORE the plaintiff filedinto court. There was no Summons. Only the inept Small Claims Document which hadno legal value, including attachments which also had no legal value. Page 26;Generally Pages 1-44 5/5/2020 Signed Small Claim Form with NO LEGAL POWER sinceit was not filed timely into Small Claims Court, which they can knowinglye-file, and they DID efile on 6/18/2020. Their login account most likely islongstanding despite the fact they are categorized as a pro hac vice attorney.6/11/2020 Defendant’s letter sent to sender of Priority Mail and LVNV Funding,Greenville, SC in response to Priority Mailing. Pages 234 and 235 6/10/2020“Page 5” stating “This was originally an account with WebBank (Fingerhut)account number ending in 5885….LVNV Funding Account number ending in 2780”6/10/2020 NOTICE REGARDING FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT SUBSEQUENTCOMMUNICATIONS, DATED 4/23/2020 – yet this was enclosed in the Priority MailEnvelope that was nefariously placed in defendant’s mailbox on late evening ofJune 9 or daytime of June 10, 2020. This 3-line statement references USC Title15, Section 1692 only. This reflects a FEDERAL CASE, not STATE. Plaintiff NoticeRegarding Fair Debt Collection Practices Act Subsequent Communications. Includedwith Small Claim in Priority Mail. Brief Statement that Plaintiff is attemptingto collect a debt – which defendant claims is fraudulent and unsubstantiated tothe court. Dated 4/23/2020. Signed by Christopher T Moylan, Esq, Matthew RBardos, Esq, using Juris No. 438732 of Stillman Law Office, LLC 30057 OrchardLake Rd, Suite 200, Dept 100, Farmington Hills, Michigan 48334 203-942-2301 withan email address of Page 116 Defendant claims theseare attorneys who conduct themselves haphazardly with an “anything goes”approach regarding court matters – reflect the practice of Secret Societies andCults. Page 116 6/10/2020 Undated “We Can’t Accept Your Payment” included inPriority Mail Company: True Accord, 16011 College Blvd, Suite 130, Lenexa, KS66219. Business Search on this company resulted in this information: RegisteredOffice: 534 S Kansas Ave Ste 1000, TOPEKA, KS 66603 Page 114 Note, Search wasmade on True Accord to determine if it was registered as a business entity. Page115. Forfeiture date: 7/15/2020 “We Can no longer accept online payment” wassearched in defendant’s email to prove this was not taken from her email – Page112 6/10/2020 Two page document printed from case information, not received inthe mail. but included with scanned court documents after plaintiff filed6/18/2020. . This is typed printout on a Small Claim Form, claiming “DeliveryInformation”, which, if sent Priority Mail, would be available by printing itfrom USPS data base for AUTHENTICITY. Document claims that the Priority Mail wassent from Illinois on June 4 at 2:04 pm, several intermittent arrivals,including destination time of 12:46 pm at Defendant’s Residence on June 9, 2020.There is no signature on this, yet on 6/15/2020 an attorney with the StillmanLaw Office, Christopher Moylan, signed a defective Certification of Mailingclaiming “Priority Mail Information Attached” with no signature on the attachedto satisfy Certification of Mailing Requirements. Additionally, it failed toindicate it was served on the Defendant, which is also a requirement. Page 1136/10/2020 “Your Account has a New Owner: LVNV Funding” this undated document wasplaced with other documents in the Priority Mail Envelope from KellermanInvestigators, in the Chicago, IL area Page 109 6/10/2020 Declaration of AccountTransfer – From Sherman Originator to LVNV – both are Sherman Companies. Detailsonly reflect nefarious activity. Page 146 6/23/2020 Exhibit A by Plaintiff –Supposed Transaction from Synchrony to unk company. Transfer Batch N/A. Thisinfo has no authenticity or coherence. 6/23.2020 Page 3 of 9 by Plaintiff –BLANK PAGE. ONE OF TWO “WILD CARDS” WHICH THE PLAINTIFF USES, showing intent tofraud records at some point. The Small Claims Court should have removed them.6/23/2020 Page 4 of 9 by Plaintiff – Defective bill which is not even legiblewithout use of magnifying glass. $580.32 is alleged balance for the followingdate: 8/10/2017. This document has no relevance. Page 149 6/23/2020 Bill of SaleFebruary 2019 – 1 1/2 years AFTER defective bill above. Defendant claims thisdocument also is defective, even fraudulent. Synchrony Bank was never formerlyknown as GE Capital! Synchrony Bank was established on or before 2006. This isone of the main reasons the document is fraudulent. 6/23/2020 Unreadable billdated 1/18/2018 – needing magnifying glasses to read. Defined as ‘CHARGE OFFACCOUNT” New Balance is 0; yet claiming Min Due as $400.00. Defendant claimsthis document is defective, fraudulent. 6/23/2020 Plaintiff’s Statement ofService/Certification of Service – fails to comply with the Rules of Court aswell as Law. This was never served on Defendant. Other notations by theDefendant have been made on this and other documents submitted into court. Pages152-154 Plaintiff’s Exhibit 5 of 9: Again, printed so small it is not legiblewithout a magnifying glass. 2017 BALANCE DUE as 561.48. Defendant claims thisdefective bill is not only without merit; but has no relevance on this case.LVNV showed no history from year to year, let alone month to month – and cannotextract a bill from 2017 and claim it is valid and prosecutable. THERE IS NOPROOF OF BURDEN. NO STATEMENT IS PROOF OF BURDEN. HISTORY OF PAYMENTS ANDPURCHASES IS PROOF OF BURDEN YET THEY REPEATEDLY REFUSE TO PROVIDE THAT DESPITEBEING REQUESTED. 6/23/2020 Dept of Def Status Report on Proof of ServiceMember/non-Service Member With insufficient Military Service Affidavit sincethis is to be prepared by the Defendant and only at the Defendant’s desire touse it Pages 156-159, 266-269 7/9/2020 Search on Michigan Public Records Centerfor Stillman Law Firm, which would not print as the name being searched. MemberDirectory results in attorney names which are not located on the documentation.Yet this is the law firm which has pro hac vice status and has entered this Lawfirm’s juris number on the Small Claims Writ. Pages 15-16 Exhibit 8 of 9 : Blankpage. Defendant claims this is another “wild card” used by the plaintiff and canonly presume it will be used to alter records in the future at some point. Page160 Amazon Bill, again not legible without magnifying glass. Bill for year 2018.CHARGE OFF. INTEREST ADDED: $339.63 YET PREV BALANCE IS $840.90; CREDITS ARE$875.90; PAYMENT DUE DATE 1/18/2018. INSTRUCTIONS TO DEFENDANT – NOTICE TOPERSON BEING SUED. This notice had to be printed by the Defendant through theLaw Library system. This was nothing sent to the defendant by the Plaintiff.There is no signature by the plaintiff on it as part of validation. Noreferenced docket number. Defendant printed it as part of the numerous attemptsto unravel this very corrupted action against her. Pages 163-164; 271-272 (copy)Defendant began receiving emails from GE Money in 2011 as an Amazon Customer.According to email search, Synchrony began communicating as Defendant’s new cardholder – NOT COLLECTION AGENCY – in 2016, possibly 2015 since Google fails toprint all 25 emails on each page. Page 164 – 175 email search Printed Court CaseInformation on aforesaid case – defendant printed it due to every time sheopened it, it was marked “Information Updated” with a different date. Thisinformation update is 7/9/2020 yet there is no way to detect what they did. Page237-238 Cases that belong to Small Claims begin with SCC Page 239 Defendant madecase search on 6/10/2020 after looking at the Priority Mail and discovered nocase had been entered. Pages 240-241 Defendant’s comments on a few applicablelaws on Collections – Pages 242 – 250; 252 also refer to SECTION 3, LAWS, whichis being provided to the court and plaintiff as a separate scanned document asapto ensure they have it. Example of Small Claims Writ from 2017 –plaintiff-attorney references THEY have a six-year Statute of Limitations. Page251 Defendant’s search on True Accord in her email. Results 1-25 of MANYEarliest being May 28 (Google cut of year, so defendant is unsure of year andhas no time to validate it before taking this Amended Timeline to the courthousetoday, July 13, 2020) Pages 253-254 DEFENDANT’S CREDIT IS RUINED BY FALSEREPORTING – ANOTHER TACTIC THEY HARM HER WITH AS A TARGETED CITIZEN Pages255-256 21. 6/11/2020 Tenant Release Waiver and Assumption Risk, submitted bydefendant’s apartment management. “Due to COVID” Note, this copy had 360 StateStreet, Inc address on it yet they are not the landlord of record. Defendantrefused to sign it claiming it was illegal and “We are not in Marshal Law”Thereafter, the landlord EMAILED this same TENANT SURRENDER TO LANDLORD formusing “360 State” as heading. Defendant emailed the landlord management (who arepaid by Bozzutto, Inc, the builders of this apartment building) back saying,“No, I am not signing. It is not legal.” Other portion of that email of June 26was altered by a hacker. Landlord never responded to the email added: “So what’sgoing on with the HVAC unit? It sounds like it’s going to blow up” – this emailwas sent twice, attaching a 15-sec recording of the sound, with no response.Pages 106-108, 110-111, 117-122 22. 6/17/2020 Defendant made discoveries on JoeBiden as she was working on the paperwork of this Small Claim as she wasresearching a number of companies referenced, one of which uses a Delawareaddress. Defendant relayed in social media that it is obvious to her that JoeBiden had his family murdered as a satanic ritual, a deal he made with theSatanic Underground (identified by Dr. Ted Gunderson through public speakingvideos on YouTube, yet Dr. Gunderson died from arsenic poisoning at theapartment which CIA man John DeCamp referred him to in Nevada) 23. 6/22/2020Petition To Forego Election 2020. Defendant submitted this Petition stipulatingthat Trump is removed and replaced by Mike Pence, current Vice President. Page123-136 24. 6/25/2020 Landlord sent emails to all tenants claiming the falsealarm was caused by someone in the market, that they didn’t realize it went offin the whole building. No mention of anyone just calling 911 claiming it was afalse alarm. Defendant emails reflecting this activity: false alarm,contaminated water, et. Pages 137-144 25. 5/9/2020 “True Accord Account Ending10027- and LVNV account ending in 2780” – which they also claim is the AmazonAccount - Email demanding the Defendant pay a nefarious balance withFingerhut/WebBank account ending in 5885. Peter Martin, sender of email. Page145 26. Edited Remove Trump Now Petition. 9June2020 Pages 177 to 180 27.Defendant sent email on Motion To Forego Election, also noted experiences as aTARGETED CITIZEN because of the petitions she submitted. Page 181 28. Defendantmade searches on information on alleged Plaintiff Pages 182-184 29. DefendantSearched “Synchrony Bank” in her email and printed First and last pages, and afew inbetween. Google pulled up GE Capital for 2014/not Synchrony. Page 187shows Synchrony most likely took over as card holder in 2015. Pages 186 to 19030. WHO IS PAMELA JOHNSON? DEFENDANT MADE SEARCHES. Apparently Ms. Johnson wasthe daughter or x-wife of the owner of Sherman Companies. And married theMarketing Manager, George R. Johnson. -SHE IS CLAIMING TO BE AN OUTLAW IN HER TRAINING. YET THOSE WORDS DO NOT PRINT.DEFENDANT WROTE THEM IN @truthstreamnewshas a good video on "100 Secret Societies"; and don't forget, some like #YPO areright #InPlainSight @mediamonarchy #JeffCensored @joeimbriano777 @Scottymechanic Tell a Story to makeyour pitch – it doesn’t have to be true, of course, you just have to tell itwith feeling because that’s what people want: Pages 192-201 31. Defendant’s Searchon LVNV in her email. Results: 25. First email shown: Feb 2015, then March 2019Pages 216-217 32, Defendant made search on RESURGENT CAPITAL SERVICES, LP Page218 – 221 33. Printout of all cases involving LVNV in Judicial Branch WebsitePages 222- 232   5/13/2020 Email from True Accord/Peter Martin “I realize youdidn’t respond to our previous offers this offer still may not be feasible foryou at the moment. You can explore your other payment options on our website….”LVNV account number ending in 2780, which may be Amazon depending on how theyfeel that day! No mention of processing a Small Claim against the Defendantobviously because they cooked it up to help their Satanic Brother Donald Trump,as revenge for submitting Petition to Remove Trump Now on 6/8/2020. TheyBACKDATED DOCUMENTS TO “PROVE” IT HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH THE PETITION AND INSUCH A HURRY THEY MADE TYPOS THAT WERE NOT CORRECTED. 34. 6/12/2020 Defendantemail with subject: I hope these companies all get taken down and whoever fundsthem! Yet when it is forwarded, the subject is: This is what I was going to mail4:40 pm Page 236 35. Defendant attempted to do a business search AGAIN throughSecretary of State’s website (since prior search did not include LVNV; and theyaltered the record after she sent emails to people she keeps in contact withemphasizing that LVNV was not even registered in Connecticut) Page 259 36.Business Search on True Accord since it was not listed as one of the SHERMANCOMPANIES like Resurgent, LVNV, etc. INSUFFICIENT RESULTS Pages 258 to 265 37.Business Search by Defendant. RESURGENT CAPITAL Page 270 38. Defendant Searchedon Sherman Companies Headquarters Pages 273-274 39. Defenant searched email forLVNV, 2020 emails. Page 275 40. Additional Case Information printed, due tochanges in Updates Pages 276 - 284 41. Proof of Defendant’s efiling yet theCourt Services Intercepted and blocked her efforts, claiming she had to emailher license to them, which is a violation of privacy. They refused to take acopy in the mail or by fax. Written statement by Defendant included. Defendantclaimed ABUSE OF PROCEDURE. Pages 285 – 290 42. CASE LOOKUP. “Only thosearguable motions marked take papers will be considered by the Court at thistime” – which is a violation of Due Process for Small Claims. Addtionally, at nopoint was the Defendant informed that this Small Claims action against her wouldbe transferred to civil court on the court’s own motion, and also would not evenbe heard unless the party marks “Take Papers” which means the exact opposite ofTestimony Required – indeed reflective of Satanic behavior, not Administrationof the Law. No motions have been submitted on this Small Claim by the Defendant.It is not a usual part of the process. Pages 291-295 43. Info on LVNV FundingLLC – their phone number has shopping ads, and other advertisements. No oneanswers. No voicemail. Yet this is the address which they use, as printed: 55Beattie Place, Suite 110, MS501, Greenville, SC 29601, Phone: 888-665-0374.Pages 296-298 44. Defendant validates her claim there is no Pandemic, they arelying, which also makes her a TARGETED CITIZEN. Two page printout off CDCwebsite which shows deliberate extraction of Jan – June 2019 and no informationfor 2020 – defendant obviously intercepted their abilty to fraud records andseemingly get away with it, as if Defendant was not the only one searching thisinformation. Defendant’s Statement All information is true and correct to thebest of my knowledge and belief. There are a few unaccounted for pages yetamending this took a tremendous amount of time due to unforeseen struggles withthe Appendix not lining up with the submitted Timeline, even though defendantclaims she created a draft of the Timeline relying on the assembled Appendixdocuments. Certification of Service to Plaintiff Defendant Anne M. Bradley willbe serving an electronic SCANNED copy of aforesaid Amended Timeline this day, July 13, 2020.¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬________________________ ###### REMINDER - The court has not uploadedany of my documents on the case, including a substantial Appendix submitted onthe Answer Date - including my Countersuit submitted on the Answer Date. Servedon the Plaintiff via through email since the Plaintiff was enjoying electronicappearance WITH NO APPEARANCE ON RECORD. MY COUNTERSUIT WAS NOT PROCESSED EITHERYET i SUBMITTED IT TIMELY ###################################### Case No.NNH-CV-20-6105010-S : State of Connecticut LNV FUNDING, LLC ASSIGNEE OFSYNCHRONY BANK : SMALL CLAIMS COURT VS ANNE M. BRADLEY :JUNE 29, 2020 August 7,2020 DEFENDANT’S ANSWER AND SPECIAL DEFENSES Append to July 9 Answer and SpecialDefenses This document is to be scanned in with JD-CV108 Form and preparedattachments submitted July 9, 2020 - which the court has not scanned in to thisday. 1. Plaintiff failed to serve the defendant according to PB 24-1 to PB24-10. a. Priority Mail did not have and delivery information when defendantlooked up the tracking number. Conclusion: Someone other than the mailclerk whodelivers mail to defendant’s residence placed it in defendant’s mailbox. Themailman or woman has to scan it as delivered. Defendant is confident they neverwaiver on their duties. It was not even entered as being sent according totracking information. Defendant reported this to a federal authority and mailedthe information. Defendant scanned in an 82-page document. A false alarm causingtenants to evacuate the building resulted in that scanned document to have pageswhich only print all black. (i) The management reported the false alarm was dueto an employee “accidentally” pulling the fire alarm in the store which has beenoperating for ten years. No one called authorities to explain it was a falsealarm even though there are some severely disabled people in this building, anddefendant saw a personal care assistant making her patient struggle down severalflights of stairs even though he was very weak and shaking and using just acane. There was also a couple who had to bring their baby outside. b. Thealleged Priority Mail had a return address of a company titled KELLERMANINVESTIGATIONS, LTD – located in Glen Carbon, IL. The only tracking informationwas a confirmation that the stamp had been purchased. It is against postal lawto allow a customer to purchase a priority mail sticker unless it is beingdelivered that day. If they mail it another day, they have to get a new sticker,which may be replaced and not re-purchased upon explaining circumstances to thepostal clerk. Most likely someone purchased it through their mail machine yetthe machine would require both sender and receiver information. Note, aCertification of Service is required to be included in the Priority Mail thedate which a mailing is sent to the receiver/defendant. There is noCertification of Service which provides that statement with the documents whichwere in the Priority Mail envelope. The printout showing defendant’s resultswhen typing in the tracking number ON APRIL 23, 2020 has been submitted to thecourt. A copy of the Amended Timeline dated 7/13/2020 (which is also used toserve as Appendix to documents served to the Plaintiff and Court on 7/13/2020)is attached to this Revised Submission, which should be scanned in with the FORMwhich Defendant Prepared, attachments to the form, no stapled due to the court’sABUSE OF PROCESS. PLAINTIFF CLAIMS THE PRIORITY MAIL WAS DELIVERED TO HERRESIDENCE ON APRIL 9, WHICH IS FALSE. (i) Note, both the Small Claim Writ Formand Affidavit are required to be the same date iaw PB 24-24. Small Claim WritForm was signed by Connecticut Attorney who uses Michigan Law Office as JurisNumber, claiming to be a Commissioner of the Court – WHICH IS NOT A NOTARY.Attached is a Supplement to this Appended Document to Answer And SpecialDefenses. Only if a Writ AND Notice of Suit is Notarized may a plaintiff foregosubmitting a separate Affidavit of Debt. Yet in this case, the plaintiffdeliberately submitted an illegal Affidavit of Debt – not only fraudulent yetnot even dated properly – of which is ANOTHER reason which the court should haveacted in its duties by removing this case from the docket since it has no merit.(ii) Note, although Defendant’s appearance includes filing electronically AS AMATTER OF RIGHT, the state’s Small Claims Dept. intercepted her processing byadding-on another requirement despite the fact that the defendant was ALREADYREGISTERED and attempting to upload her first document. Defendant claims this isnot just ABUSE OF PROCESS. IT IS ALSO FRAUD. An acclaimed attorney in the SmallClaims Dept. claimed she added this request and the only way she would allowdefendant to send her a copy of defendant’s PICTURE ID is through internet – notUS Mail, not FAX – which is a deliberate violation of the defendant’s privacyAND RIGHT TO DUE PROCESS. c. According to the court on aforesaid case, theplaintiff is LVNV Funding with no address of record on the Court Form JD-CV-40A1– which is supposed to be an ANSWER FORM which ONLY THE DEFENDANT COMPLETES.LVNV WAS NOT REGISTERED IN THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT, YET AFTER DEFENDANTMENTIONED THIS THROUGH HER EMAIL TO CONTACTS SHE KEEPS IN TOUCH WITH, THESECRETARY OF STATE ALTERED THE RECORD TO INCLUDE LVNV FUNDING LLC with a mainaddress as Las Vegas, Nevada, and a secondary address as the state of Delaware –neither address of which is a PO Box in Greenville, SC, which is ILLEGALLLY onthe Small Claim Form. Defendant has submitted the very proof that her search onLVNV resulted in no information, yet the website was working fine for all otherinformation which defendant made searches on. The ANSWER AND SPECIAL DEFENSES isa form that defendant should be completing. Not the court. According to theSmall Claims Writ as well as Rules of court and Statutes of Connecticut, theplaintiff has an address which SHOULD NOT BE TAKEN IN BY THE COURT: PO Boxes arenot places of operation or residency. Additionally, this address is located inGreenville, SC – and the plaintiff on the Small Claim is not registered in thestate of Connecticut; and if it was, could not use that address for the record.There is nothing in the short affidavit, used as a Complaint, which explains whyit used a PO Box for address of record. Defendant can only speculate, due to thehundreds of Small Claims filings by LVNV Funding in Connecticut, that certainpoliticians allow this nefarious company to prosecute as plaintiff without beingregistered in Connecticut because they or other politicians in Washington, DCprobably make money off them as investors, and most likely are used to propagatethe Satanic Underground’s New World Order Agenda. Additionally, a person by thename of Matthew Bardos signed this small claim without identifying who he is. ASCRIBBLE was made under his name, claiming to be a Commissioner of the Court,SUBSCRIBED AND SWORN, with no stamp of when Commission Expires along with nameon the stamp. The Small Claims Writ Form which was in the Priority Mailflat-rate envelope to defendant - from the nefarious company in Illinois - inJune 2020 is not even stamped by the court, which is another defective matter onthis case. A Writ is an Order By The Court. This is a definition in the Black’sLaw Dictionary, which cannot be questioned. (i) On June 29, 2020, defendantprinted the tracking information since her 82-page scanned document had certainpages blacked-out, replacing what was actually scanned in. (Cyber Crime occurredthe same time there was a false fire alarm in the building requiring all tenantsto leave the building – tenants were not told to walk back up even thoughmanagement was well aware of the supposed accidental pulling of the fire alarm.The pages still exist and don’t just print as blank white pages, thus reflectingthe document had been altered.. They come out completely black with ink,reflecting the document had been deliberately altered by someone who accessedthat file remotely or directly on defendant’s laptop - which reflects one ofmany issues of CYBER CRIME on this case. c. The Statement of Service, wasprepared AFTER the plaintiff claims to have mailed the PRIORITY MAIL FROMILLINOIS (proving that this certification was non Compliant – another reasonthis case has no merit) It is signed by a person with no identity, not title,rather than being consistent by using Kellerman, who is not even a party to thiscase and has never been a party to a case in Connecticut according to a recordssearch made by the Defendant. This only damages the credibility of this case allthe more. The person apparently is an attorney, Christopher Moylan, with a JurisNo. of 402604. Defendant attempted to locate this Juris No. though there is noindication in this Small Claim paperwork where this attorney practices. (i) Upondoing a search of this Juris Number, Defendant discovered that this attorney hasan Active Status and is marked with “A”, rather than “F” for Pro Hac Vice, asthe Stillman Law Office used when submitting this small claim electronically.This attorney’s address is at the Stillman Law Office at 41 Kenosha Ave, Suite302, Danbury, CT 06810 with a Business ID of 1166757 He had no authority toprepare a Certification of Service for a company located in Illinois.Additionally, the Stillman Law Office which is referred to by the court on theonly document which the court gave the defendant (Pre-prepared Defendant’sAnswer and Special Defenses) is located at 30057 Orchard Lake Road, Suite 200Dept 100, Farmington Hills, Michigan 48334. Their Business ID is 438732. Referto Supplement to this Appended Document since upon discovery, theplaintiff-attorneys (both Moylan and Bardos) have false identities online. 2.“Affidavit of Facts and Purchase Of Account” By Plaintiff was included inpaperwork and NEVER mailed to the defendant PRIOR to entering the small claimcase. Plaintiff made another false statement regarding it served defendant thisaffidavit. Upon viewing the case information, the court ADDED pages to thisaffidavit, titled “Notice of Suit” which is outright fraudulent. Logicallyspeaking, Notice of Suit is required to be sent 4 weeks prior to mailing a SmallClaim. This was a “fudging of records” to cover up the signed Small Claim of5/5/2020 yet not entered into court until two months later, despite the factattorneys in Connecticut can electronically file cases right from their worklocations online. 3. The only reason defendant is not submitting an immediateMOTION TO DISMISS AND EXPUNGE is because the Defendant claims a right toCOUNTERSUE, of which was submitted, to the fullest amount for a Small Claim –yet this amount would certainly be increased if this case was made a CivilLawsuit since this case does not have a Small Claims Number, but a Civil CaseNumber. An application for Fee Waiver was submitted timely. The court claimeddefendant could not have it signed by them because she could not go to theiroffice. Therefore, defendant entered “No Clerk available due to COVID Agenda”.Rather than tell the defendant to resubmit a fee waiver and they would meet herby the Marshall’s workstation, the court returned a selected group of papers,strategically claiming they could not accept them because the fee waiver had tobe signed by their office clerk. Defendant was not called about this, theysimply took the liberty of violating Due Process. Defendant immediately returnedthem upon getting them in the mail, claiming ABUSE OF PROCEDURE. There wasalready a fee waiver entered in court, signed by their Deputy Chief Clerk, bythe time these documents were received in THIRD CLASS MAIL (another opportunityto abuse procedure, to slow the process) since the defendant had called thecourt by chance, and they told her they mailed those documents to her that sameday (no doubt having the ability to remove them from the mail) and defendantsaid that was completely illogical since a new fee waiver would have to besubmitted if they wanted the deputy chief clerk to sign it at the marshall’sworkstation – which was an added-on requirement AFTER defendant called them andinformed them she would be submitting a fee waiver for the filing and processing(including service process) of the COUNTERSUIT – ALL OF WHICH WEREELECTRONICALLY SERVED ON THE PLAINTIFF THROUGH EMAIL, WITH VERBAL CONFIRMATIONBY THEIR OFFICE THAT THE EMAIL WAS RECEIVED. Prepared and submitted FOR THEDEFENDANT PRO SE _________________________ Anne M. Bradley, Pro Se CERTIFICATIONOF SERVICE AFORESAID “Appended Document to “Defendant’s Answer And SpecialDefenses”, comprising of SIX PAGES, along with Supplement of TWENTY-FOUR PAGES,is NOT being electronically served on the plaintiff due to the abuse of process,CYBER CRIME, and deceptive manner in which the Stillman Law Firm claim only byphone verbally they received those documents (copies of current email, etc.included in Supplement) in the email at the time defendant called their 800number on the appearance form – refusing to tell the defendant where they wereactually located, which no doubt is NOT where the address of record on the SmallClaims Form was. These papers are being mailed today from the Yale Post Officeif their machine is available to pay for postage. Otherwise, the papers will bemailed at Yale Post Office, THIRD CLASS MAIL, tomorrow, Saturday. Due to reducedhours of operation, defendant is unable to send them today unless their machineis operating. The counter closes at 2p.m. Mon-Friday and is open 9-12 onSaturdays. A copy of the proof will be retained – unlike what the plaintiff didwhen mailing the Priority Mail flat, with a printout from USPS. Instead, theycreated an Affidavit with unverified information and at the time where USPSindicated there was absolutely no tracking on that number. The stamp had onlybeen purchased. ________________________ Anne M. Bradley******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************CONNECTICUT RULES OF COURT CHAPTER 24 – Note, these rules can be searched onlineATTACHED PAGES 280-283 Pages 16-19 of this Section CONNECTICUT STATUTES CGS51-15 (2012) ATTACHED PAGES 6-10 (Printed by Defendant 6/23/2020 – 7/9/2020)Pages 20 – 23 of this Section USC Title 15, Section 1692 1. U.S. Code 2. Title15. COMMERCE AND TRADE 3. Chapter 41. CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION – PROVIDEDBELOW BY DEFENDANT 4. Subchapter V. DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES – PROVIDED BELOWBY DEFENDANT 5. Section 1692. Congressional findings and declaration of purposeNote: Defendant emphasizes that LVNV had only cited this following law in thedocumentation which the Defendant was able to recover, based on scanneddocuments in her emails, since her financial records were all stolen out of herapartment.; thereby holding THEMSELVES accountable. Second Note: According tothe online technocrats on the Cornell University Website, the crafted definitionof the word DEBT is the following: Debt Definition is NOT Constitutional – nocompany can abuse its power by alleging. BURDEN OF PROOF SHOULD BE MANDATORY ANDIS ALREADY PART OF THE LAW; CANNOT BE BROKEN. (5) The term “debt” means anyobligation or alleged obligation of a consumer to pay money arising out of atransaction in which the money, property, insurance, or services which are thesubject of the transaction are primarily for personal, family, or householdpurposes, whether or not such obligation has been reduced to judgment. ACCORDINGTO BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY, A DEBT CANNOT BE ALLEGED: Liability on a claim; aspecific sum of money due by agreement… 15 U.S. Code § 1692.Congressionalfindings and declaration of purpose • U.S. Code • Notes prev | next (a)ABUSIVEPRACTICES There is abundant evidence of the use of abusive, deceptive, andunfair debt collection practices by many debt collectors. Abusive debtcollection practices contribute to the number of personal bankruptcies, tomarital instability, to the loss of jobs, and to invasions of individualprivacy. (b)INADEQUACY OF LAWS Existing laws and procedures for redressing theseinjuries are inadequate to protect consumers. (c)AVAILABLE NON-ABUSIVECOLLECTION METHODS Means other than misrepresentation or other abusive debtcollection practices are available for the effective collection of debts.(d)INTERSTATE COMMERCE Abusive debt collection practices are carried on to asubstantial extent in interstate commerce and through means andinstrumentalities of such commerce. Even where abusive debt collection practicesare purely intrastate in character, they nevertheless directly affect interstatecommerce. (e)PURPOSES It is the purpose of this subchapter to eliminate abusivedebt collection practices by debt collectors, to insure that those debtcollectors who refrain from using abusive debt collection practices are notcompetitively disadvantaged, and to promote consistent State action to protectconsumers against debt collection abuses. (Pub. L. 90–321, title VIII, § 802, asadded Pub. L. 95–109, Sept. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 874.) Third Note: SecretSocieties have been dictating the mechanisms which, in fact they have no rightto dictate. They conspire, they are ultimately the worst organized crime in thisnation and therefore should be considered DOMESTIC TERRORISTS. 15 U.S. CodeCHAPTER 41—CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION prev | next 1. SUBCHAPTER I—CONSUMERCREDIT COST DISCLOSURE (§§ 1601 – 1667f) 2. SUBCHAPTER II—RESTRICTIONS ONGARNISHMENT (§§ 1671 – 1677) 3. SUBCHAPTER II–A—CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS (§§1679 – 1679j) 4. SUBCHAPTER III—CREDIT REPORTING AGENCIES (§§ 1681 – 1681x) 5.SUBCHAPTER IV—EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY (§§ 1691 – 1691f) 6. SUBCHAPTER V—DEBTCOLLECTION PRACTICES (§§ 1692 – 1692p) 7. SUBCHAPTER VI—ELECTRONIC FUNDTRANSFERS (§§ 1693 – 1693r) 15 U.S. Code SUBCHAPTER I—CONSUMER CREDIT COSTDISCLOSURE Note by Defendant: Burden of Proof should be all over this!Nevertheless, due to standards and practices, the Plaintiff if OBLIGATED TOPROVE AND HAS REFUSED TO DO SO, AS STATED IN DEFENDANT’S ANSWER AND SPECIALDEFENSES. 15 U.S. Code PART A—GENERAL PROVISIONS prev | next 1. § 1601.Congressional findings and declaration of purpose 2. § 1602. Definitions andrules of construction 3. § 1603. Exempted transactions 4. § 1604. Disclosureguidelines 5. § 1605. Determination of finance charge 6. § 1606. Determinationof annual percentage rate 7. § 1607. Administrative enforcement 8. § 1608. Viewsof other agencies 9. § 1609. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–239, § 3(b)(1), Mar. 23, 1976,90 Stat. 253 10. § 1610. Effect on other laws 11. § 1611. Criminal liability forwillful and knowing violation 12. § 1612. Effect on government agencies 13.§ 1613. Annual reports to Congress by Bureau 14. § 1614. Repealed. Pub. L.96–221, title VI, § 616(b), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 182 15. § 1615. Prohibitionon use of “Rule of 78’s” in connection with mortgage refinancings and otherconsumer loans 16. § 1616. Board review of consumer credit plans and regulations15 U.S. Code § 1607 - Administrative enforcement (a)ENFORCING AGENCIESSubject tosubtitle B of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5511 etseq.], compliance with the requirements imposed under this subchapter shall beenforced under— (1)section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C.1818], by the appropriate Federal banking agency, as defined in section 3(q) ofthe Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(q)), with respect to— (A)national banks, Federal savings associations, and Federal branches and Federalagencies of foreign banks; (B) member banks of the Federal Reserve System (otherthan national banks), branches and agencies of foreign banks (other than Federalbranches, Federal agencies, and insured State branches of foreign banks),commercial lending companies owned or controlled by foreign banks, andorganizations operating under section 25 or 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12U.S.C. 601 et seq., 611 et seq.]; and (C) banks and State savings associationsinsured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (other than members of theFederal Reserve System), and insured State branches of foreign banks; (2) theFederal Credit Union Act [12 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.], by the Director of theNational Credit Union Administration, with respect to any Federal credit union;(3) part A of subtitle VII of title 49, by the Secretary of Transportation, withrespect to any air carrier or foreign air carrier subject to that part; (4) thePackers and Stockyards Act, 1921 [7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.] (except as provided insection 406 of that Act [7 U.S.C. 226, 227]), by the Secretary of Agriculture,with respect to any activities subject to that Act; (5) the Farm Credit Act of1971 [12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.], by the Farm Credit Administration with respect toany Federal land bank, Federal land bank association, Federal intermediatecredit bank, or production credit association; and (6) subtitle E of theConsumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5561 et seq.], by theBureau, with respect to any person subject to this subchapter. (7) sections 21Band 21C of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78u–2, 78u–3], in thecase of a broker or dealer, other than a depository institution, by theSecurities and Exchange Commission. (b)VIOLATIONS OF THIS SUBCHAPTER DEEMEDVIOLATIONS OF PRE-EXISTING STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS; ADDITIONAL AGENCY POWERS Forthe purpose of the exercise by any agency referred to in subsection (a) of itspowers under any Act referred to in that subsection, a violation of anyrequirement imposed under this subchapter shall be deemed to be a violation of arequirement imposed under that Act. In addition to its powers under anyprovision of law specifically referred to in subsection (a), each of theagencies referred to in that subsection may exercise, for the purpose ofenforcing compliance with any requirement imposed under this subchapter, anyother authority conferred on it by law. (c)OVERALL ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY OF THEFEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Except to the extent that enforcement of therequirements imposed under this subchapter is specifically committed to someother Government agency under any of paragraphs (1) through (5) of subsection(a), and subject to subtitle B of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010[12 U.S.C. 5511 et seq.], the Federal Trade Commission shall be authorized toenforce such requirements. For the purpose of the exercise by the Federal TradeCommission of its functions and powers under the Federal Trade Commission Act[15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.], a violation of any requirement imposed under thissubchapter shall be deemed a violation of a requirement imposed under that Act.All of the functions and powers of the Federal Trade Commission under theFederal Trade Commission Act are available to the Federal Trade Commission toenforce compliance by any person with the requirements under this subchapter,irrespective of whether that person is engaged in commerce or meets any otherjurisdictional tests under the Federal Trade Commission Act. (d)RULES ANDREGULATIONS The authority of the Bureau to issue regulations under thissubchapter does not impair the authority of any other agency designated in thissection to make rules respecting its own procedures in enforcing compliance withrequirements imposed under this subchapter. (e)ADJUSTMENT OF FINANCE CHARGES;PROCEDURES APPLICABLE, COVERAGE, CRITERIA, ETC. (1) In carrying out itsenforcement activities under this section, each agency referred to in subsection(a) or (c), in cases where an annual percentage rate or finance charge wasinaccurately disclosed, shall notify the creditor of such disclosure error andis authorized in accordance with the provisions of this subsection to requirethe creditor to make an adjustment to the account of the person to whom creditwas extended, to assure that such person will not be required to pay a financecharge in excess of the finance charge actually disclosed or the dollarequivalent of the annual percentage rate actually disclosed, whichever is lower.For the purposes of this subsection, except where such disclosure error resultedfrom a willful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom creditwas extended, in determining whether a disclosure error has occurred and incalculating any adjustment, (A) each agency shall apply (i) with respect to theannual percentage rate, a tolerance of one-quarter of 1 percent more or lessthan the actual rate, determined without regard to section 1606(c) of thistitle, and (ii) with respect to the finance charge, a corresponding numericaltolerance as generated by the tolerance provided under this subsection for theannual percentage rate; except that (B) with respect to transactions consummatedafter two years following March 31, 1980, each agency shall apply (i) fortransactions that have a scheduled amortization of ten years or less, withrespect to the annual percentage rate, a tolerance not to exceed one-quarter of1 percent more or less than the actual rate, determined without regard tosection 1606(c) of this title, but in no event a tolerance of less than thetolerances allowed under section 1606(c) of this title, (ii) for transactionsthat have a scheduled amortization of more than ten years, with respect to theannual percentage rate, only such tolerances as are allowed under section1606(c) of this title, and (iii) for all transactions, with respect to thefinance charge, a corresponding numerical tolerance as generated by thetolerances provided under this subsection for the annual percentage rate.(2)Each agency shall require such an adjustment when it determines that suchdisclosure error resulted from (A) a clear and consistent pattern or practice ofviolations, (B) gross negligence, or (C) a willful violation which was intendedto mislead the person to whom the credit was extended. Notwithstanding thepreceding sentence, except where such disclosure error resulted from a willfulviolation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended,an agency need not require such an adjustment if it determines that suchdisclosure error— (A) resulted from an error involving the disclosure of a feeor charge that would otherwise be excludable in computing the finance charge,including but not limited to violations involving the disclosures described insections 1605(b), (c) and (d) of this title, in which event the agency mayrequire such remedial action as it determines to be equitable, except that fortransactions consummated after two years after March 31, 1980, such anadjustment shall be ordered for violations of section 1605(b) of this title; (B)involved a disclosed amount which was 10 per centum or less of the amount thatshould have been disclosed and (i) in cases where the error involved a disclosedfinance charge, the annual percentage rate was disclosed correctly, and (ii) incases where the error involved a disclosed annual percentage rate, the financecharge was disclosed correctly; in which event the agency may require suchadjustment as it determines to be equitable; (C) involved a total failure todisclose either the annual percentage rate or the finance charge, in which eventthe agency may require such adjustment as it determines to be equitable; or (D)resulted from any other unique circumstance involving clearly technical andnonsubstantive disclosure violations that do not adversely affect informationprovided to the consumer and that have not misled or otherwise deceived theconsumer. In the case of other such disclosure errors, each agency may requiresuch an adjustment. (3)Notwithstanding paragraph (2), no adjustment shall beordered— (A)if it would have a significantly adverse impact upon the safety orsoundness of the creditor, but in any such case, the agency may— (i) require apartial adjustment in an amount which does not have such an impact; or (ii)require the full adjustment, but permit the creditor to make the requiredadjustment in partial payments over an extended period of time which the agencyconsiders to be reasonable, if (in the case of an agency referred to inparagraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a)), the agency determines that apartial adjustment or making partial payments over an extended period isnecessary to avoid causing the creditor to become undercapitalized pursuant tosection 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1831o]; (B) the [1]amount of the adjustment would be less than $1, except that if more than oneyear has elapsed since the date of the violation, the agency may require thatsuch amount be paid into the Treasury of the United States, or (C)except wheresuch disclosure error resulted from a willful violation which was intended tomislead the person to whom credit was extended, in the case of an open-endcredit plan, more than two years after the violation, or in the case of anyother extension of credit, as follows: (i) with respect to creditors that aresubject to examination by the agencies referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3)of subsection (a) of this section, except in connection with violations arisingfrom practices identified in the current examination and only in connection withtransactions that are consummated after the date of the immediately precedingexamination, except that where practices giving rise to violations identified inearlier examinations have not been corrected, adjustments for those violationsshall be required in connection with transactions consummated after the date ofexamination in which such practices were first identified; (ii) with respect tocreditors that are not subject to examination by such agencies, except inconnection with transactions that are consummated after May 10, 1978; and (iii)in no event after the later of (I) the expiration of the life of the creditextension, or (II) two years after the agreement to extend credit wasconsummated. (4) (A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, anadjustment under this subsection may be required by an agency referred to insubsection (a) or (c) only by an order issued in accordance with cease anddesist procedures provided by the provision of law referred to in suchsubsections. (B) In case of an agency which is not authorized to conduct ceaseand desist proceedings, such an order may be issued after an agency hearing onthe record conducted at least thirty but not more than sixty days after noticeof the alleged violation is served on the creditor. Such a hearing shall bedeemed to be a hearing which is subject to the provisions of section 8(h) of theFederal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(h)] and shall be subject tojudicial review as provided therein. (5) Except as otherwise specificallyprovided in this subsection and notwithstanding any provision of law referred toin subsection (a) or (c), no agency referred to in subsection (a) or (c) mayrequire a creditor to make dollar adjustments for errors in any requirementsunder this subchapter, except with regard to the requirements of section 1666dof this title. (6) A creditor shall not be subject to an order to make anadjustment, if within sixty days after discovering a disclosure error, whetherpursuant to a final written examination report or through the creditor’s ownprocedures, the creditor notifies the person concerned of the error and adjuststhe account so as to assure that such person will not be required to pay afinance charge in excess of the finance charge actually disclosed or the dollarequivalent of the annual percentage rate actually disclosed, whichever is lower.(7) Notwithstanding the second sentence of subsection (e)(1), subsection(e)(3)(C)(i), and subsection (e)(3)(C)(ii), each agency referred to insubsection (a) or (c) shall require an adjustment for an annual percentage ratedisclosure error that exceeds a tolerance of one quarter of one percent lessthan the actual rate, determined without regard to section 1606(c) of thistitle, with respect to any transaction consummated between January 1, 1977, andMarch 31, 1980. (Pub. L. 90–321, title I, § 108, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 150;Pub. L. 91–206, § 3, Mar. 10, 1970, 84 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 93–495, title IV,§ 403, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1517; Pub. L. 95–630, title V, § 501, Nov. 10,1978, 92 Stat. 3680; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, § 608(a), (c), Mar. 21, 1980, 94Stat. 171, 173; Pub. L. 98–443, § 9(n), Oct. 4, 1984, 98 Stat. 1708; Pub. L.101–73, title VII, § 744(k), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 439; Pub. L. 102–242, titleII, § 212(b), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2299; Pub. L. 102–550, title XVI,§ 1604(a)(5), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4082; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II,§ 2106, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–402; Pub. L. 111–203, title X,§ 1100A(2), (8), title XIV, § 1414(b), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107, 2108,2152.) OPN: Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 LINK: Lawsacquire popular names as they make their way through Congress. Sometimes thesenames say something about the substance of the law (as with the '2002 WinterOlympic Commemorative Coin Act'). Sometimes they are a way of recognizing orhonoring the sponsor or creator of a particular law (as with the 'Taft-HartleyAct'). And sometimes they are meant to garner political support for a law bygiving it a catchy name (as with the 'USA Patriot Act' or the 'Take Pride inAmerica Act') or by invoking public outrage or sympathy (as with any number oflaws named for victims of crimes). History books, newspapers, and other sourcesuse the popular name to refer to these laws. Why can't these popular nameseasily be found in the US Code? How the US Code is built. The United States Codeis meant to be an organized, logical compilation of the laws passed by Congress.At its top level, it divides the world of legislation into fiftytopically-organized Titles, and each Title is further subdivided into any numberof logical subtopics. In theory, any law -- or individual provisions within anylaw -- passed by Congress should be classifiable into one or more slots in theframework of the Code. On the other hand, legislation often contains bundles oftopically unrelated provisions that collectively respond to a particular publicneed or problem. A farm bill, for instance, might contain provisions that affectthe tax status of farmers, their management of land or treatment of theenvironment, a system of price limits or supports, and so on. Each of theseindividual provisions would, logically, belong in a different place in the Code.(Of course, this isn't always the case; some legislation deals with a fairlynarrow range of related concerns.) The process of incorporating a newly-passedpiece of legislation into the Code is known as "classification" -- essentially aprocess of deciding where in the logical organization of the Code the variousparts of the particular law belong. Sometimes classification is easy; the lawcould be written with the Code in mind, and might specifically amend, extend, orrepeal particular chunks of the existing Code, making it no great challenge tofigure out how to classify its various parts. And as we said before, aparticular law might be narrow in focus, making it both simple and sensible tomove it wholesale into a particular slot in the Code. But this is not normallythe case, and often different provisions of the law will logically belong indifferent, scattered locations in the Code. As a result, often the law will notbe found in one place neatly identified by its popular name. Nor will afull-text search of the Code necessarily reveal where all the pieces have beenscattered. Instead, those who classify laws into the Code typically leave a noteexplaining how a particular law has been classified into the Code. It is usuallyfound in the Note section attached to a relevant section of the Code, usuallyunder a paragraph identified as the "Short Title". How the LII Table of PopularNames works. Our Table of Popular Names is organized alphabetically by popularname. You'll find three types of link associated with each popular name (thougheach law may not have all three types). One, a reference to a Public Law number,is a link to the bill as it was originally passed by Congress, and will take youto the LRC THOMAS legislative system, or GPO FDSYS site. So-called "Short Title"links, and links to particular sections of the Code, will lead you to a textualroadmap (the section notes) describing how the particular law was incorporatedinto the Code. Finally, acts may be referred to by a different name, or may havebeen renamed, the links will take you to the appropriate listing in the table.Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 Consumer Financial Protection Act of2010 Pub. L. 111-203, title X, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1955 Short title, see 12U.S.C. 5301 note Pub. L. 111-203 title X this act refers to only a portion ofthe Public Law; the tables below are for the entire Public Law Pub. L. SectionStatus United States Code Title Section Authorizes 1098A(2) 15 1715 1098A(1) 151719 1098A(1) 15 1718 12 CFR • 1010 • 1011 • 1012 1098A(1) 15 1717a 12 CFR •1083 24 CFR • 30 1098A(1) 15 1716 1098A(1) 15 1715 1098A(1) 15 1714 24 CFR •3800 1098A(1) 15 1712 1098A(1) 15 1710 1098A(1) 15 1708 1098A(1) 15 17071098A(1) 15 1706 1098A(1) 15 1705 1098A(1) 15 1704 1098A(1) 15 1702 1098(11) 122617 12 CFR • 4 • 1024 • 1026 24 CFR • 3800 1098(10) 12 2616 12 CFR • 4 24 CFR •3800 1098(9) 12 2614 12 CFR • 4 24 CFR • 3800 1098(8) 12 2609 12 CFR • 4 Note,there are numerous pages on this link#######################################################################################################################################ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON PAMELA SHERMAN - JOHNSON AND MORE • 2Career o2.1Lawyer o 2.2Professor o 2.3Actor o 2.4The Suburban Outlaw o 2.5LeadershipConsultant • 3Personal life • 4References Early life and education[edit] Shermanwas born on Staten Island, New York in 1962. Her father was a practicingObstetrician and Gynecologist and her mother a Freudian Psychoanalyst. In 1980,she graduated from Tottenville High School on Staten Island, New York. Shermanstudied at the American University in Washington, D.C. attaining degrees inInternational Relations and Theater in 1984 and a J.D. degree from YeshivaUniversity Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law in 1987. Upon leaving the law tobecome an actress, she attended the British American Drama Academy at BalliolCollege at Oxford University in 1992,[3] and the Neighborhood Playhouse Schoolof the Theatre in New York City. Career[edit] Lawyer[edit] After graduating lawschool, Sherman began the practice of law in Washington, D.C. with the firm ofDechert, Price & Rhoads (now Dechert LLP). Her focus was in securitiesmatters, employment litigation and entertainment law. She then moved to the firmMelrod Redman & Gartlan also based in Washington, D.C.[4] Professor[edit]Sherman was an adjunct professor at American University where she created anaward-winning curriculum in Arts Law in the Arts Management Program. She hasguest-lectured at Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management, the RochesterInstitute of Technology and the Education Doctoral Program at St. John FisherCollege. Among other seminars she has organized, is Acting for Lawyers at theDepartment of Justice in Washington, D.C.[4] Actor[edit] After her law firm wentout of business, Sherman returned to stage acting including shows at a number ofWashington, D.C. area theaters. She had an extended run playing Mrs. Schubert inShear Madness at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.[1] She hasalso appeared in a number of television shows, commercials and plays. Sherman,along with the award-winning playwright Caleen Sinnette Jennings co-authored andperformed the one-woman show, Pumping Josey: Life and Death in Suburbia.[5] Theshow premiered at Horizon's Theatre, the oldest women's theater in America (nowpart of the Kennedy Center for Performing Arts). After a near-decade hiatus fromthe stage, in 2017 she appeared in Geva Theatre Center's run of Erma Bombeck: AtWit's End.[6] Sherman recently starred in Geva Theatre Center’s production ofthe one-woman show Erma Bombeck: At Wit's End and broke box office records forproductions in the Fielding Stage. The run was extended twice due to populardemand with most performances selling out well before the production had evenbegun. [7] Geva Theatre Center’s production of Erma Bombeck: At Wit's End,starring Pam Sherman, was picked up by the Denver Center for the 2019-2020Broadway Season. [8] A review of the production states that "Pam Sherman does amasterful job playing Bombeck, one zinger after another, and making her relevantto a 21st Century audience." [9] Following a sold-out run in Denver, Shea'sPerforming Arts Center in Buffalo, New York, announced that Shea's 710 Theaterwill present Erma Bombeck: At Wit's End, starring Pam Sherman, starting November5th, 2019. [10] "We are very excited to partner with Rochester's Geva Theatre tobring their blockbuster hit to Buffalo audiences" states President of Shea'sPerforming Arts Center, Michael G. Murphy. [11] In addition to theatre, Shermanhas also acted in minor roles in the NBC series Unsolved Mysteries and Homicide:Life on the Streets.[2] She also appeared in the movie The Alphabet Killer[2] in2008. The Suburban Outlaw[edit] In 2001, Sherman was asked to write a column forRochester Magazine, owned by Gannett. The Suburban Outlaw Column in RochesterMagazine expanded to a weekly column in the Rochester, New York Newspaper theDemocrat and Chronicle.[12] Gannett then syndicated the Suburban Outlaw columnamong their newspapers nationally and digitally among their television stations.Her TEDx talk, "An Outlaw's Journey through the Arab Spring" focuses on herinternational travels.[13] Leadership Consultant[edit] She is a keynote speakerand provides group and individual training programs to explore the EDGE fororganizations as diverse as law firms, advertising agencies and Fortune 500companies. Sherman provides training and development programs for businessleaders all over the world on a variation of topics. Sherman is activelyinvolved in the international organization, Young Presidents' Organization,[4]Chairing the first-ever Spouse Experience for the 2009 Global LeadershipConference and serving on the International Youth & Family Task ForcePersonal life[edit] Sherman lives with her husband, Neal Sherman and twochildren in Pittsford, New York (a suburb of Rochester, New York).References[edit] 1. ^ Jump up to:a b People Magazine - Going for It 2. ^ Jump upto:a b c "Pamela Sherman IMDB". 3. ^ Wendy Horwitz. "The Method Leads toBadness" (PDF). The Washington Post. 4. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Pam ShermanBiography". 5. ^ Tricia Olszewski. "Josey's Odyssey, From Big Apple ToCrabgrass". The Washington Post. 6. ^ American Theatre Editors."Geva TheatreAnnounces 2017-18 Season" 7. ^ "Geva Announces The Return Of Pam Sherman As ErmaBombeck In ERMA BOMBECK: AT WIT'S END For A Strictly Limited Run". 8. ^ "DenverCenter announces 2019/20 Broadway season". 9. ^ "At Wit's End Review". 10. ^"Actress Lives Similar Life to That of Woman She Plays". 11. ^ "At Wit's EndScheduled to Replace Cancelled National Tour". 12. ^ "Pam Sherman - D&CStaff". 13. ^ "An Outlaw's Journey through the Arab Springs Pam Sherman atTEDxFlour City". Categories: • 1962 births • Living people • American lawyers •American actresses Navigation menu • Not logged in • Talk • Contributions •Create account • Log in • Article • Talk • Read • Edit • View history Search •Main page • Contents • Current events • Random article • About Wikipedia •Contact us • Donate Ben Navarro From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump tonavigationJump to search Ben Navarro Born Benjamin W. Navarro 1962/1963 (age56–57)[1] Williamstown, Massachusetts, US Nationality American EducationUniversity of Rhode Island Occupation Businessman Known for Founder and CEO,Sherman Financial Group Net worth US$3 billion (March 2018) Spouse(s) KellyNavarro Children 4, including Emma Navarro Parent(s) Frank Navarro Benjamin W.Navarro (born 1962/1963) is an American billionaire businessman, the founder andchief executive officer (CEO) of Sherman Financial Group, LLC, which owns CreditOne Bank. Contents • 1Early life • 2Career • 3Sports interests • 4Personal life• 5References Early life[edit] He is one of eight children of Frank Navarro, acollege football coach who posed for the Norman Rockwell painting, "TheRecruit".[2][3] He was born in Williamstown, Massachusetts, when his father wasfootball coach at Williams College.[4] He grew up in Westerly and Chariho, RhodeIsland.[5] He lived in Princeton, New Jersey and graduated from Princeton HighSchool, when his father was coaching the Princeton University football team.[4]Navarro earned a bachelor's degree in finance from the University of RhodeIsland.[1] Career[edit] Navarro worked for Goldman Sachs for three years, beforejoining Citigroup in 1988, rising to vice president and co-head of mortgagesales and trading.[1] He left Citigroup in 1997, and founded Sherman FinancialGroup, LLC, of which he is the chief executive officer (CEO).[1] Navarro has anestimated net worth of about $3 billion.[2][4] Sports interests[edit] Navarroowns the Live To Play Tennis Club in Mount Pleasant, Charleston, which hashosted two USTA national junior tennis championships, and five InternationalTennis Federation women's pro circuit tournaments.[6] In 2018, he was a bidderfor the Carolina Panthers NFL sports franchise. He ultimately lost to DavidTepper.[2] In September 2018, he bought Charleston Tennis LLC, owners of theVolvo Car Open women's tennis event, and the Family Circle Tennis Center andVolvo Car Stadium, through his company Beemok Sports LLC.[6] Personal life[edit]He is married to Kelly Navarro, they have four children and live in Charleston,South Carolina.[2][6] All four of his children are involved in tennis; Emma isthe number two-ranked US junior, younger sister Meggie is also highly ranked.[6]References[edit] 1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d "Executive Profile: Benjamin W.Navarro". Bloomberg LP. Retrieved 29 September 2018. 2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d"Potential Panthers owner Navarro is a low-profile billionaire". 29 September 2018. 3. ^ "Getting to know Panthers owner candidate BenNavarro". Retrieved 29 September 2018. 4. ^ Jump up to:a b c"Billionaire's row: A deep look at the potential bidders for the CarolinaPanthers". Retrieved 29 September 2018. 5. ^ "Ben Navarro Bio -Sherman Financial Group". Retrieved 29 September 2018. 6. ^Jump up to:a b c d Courier, James Beck Special to The Post and. "Charlestonbillionaire Ben Navarro buys Volvo Car Open women's tennis event" Retrieved 29 September 2018. This article about a UnitedStates businessperson is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.Categories: • 1960s births • Living people • Businesspeople from Charleston,South Carolina • University of Rhode Island alumni • Goldman Sachs people •Citigroup people • American billionaires • American chief executives offinancial services companies • American company founders • People fromPrinceton, New Jersey • People from Williamstown, Massachusetts • Princeton HighSchool (New Jersey) alumni • American business biography stubs Navigation menu •Not logged in • Talk • Contributions • Create account • Log in • Article • Talk• Read • Edit • View history Search • Main page • Contents • Current events •Random article • About Wikipedia • Contact us • Donate Contribute • Help •Community portal • Recent changes • Upload file Tools • What links here •Related changes • Special pages • Permanent link • Page information • Wikidataitem • Cite this page Print/export • Download as PDF • Printable versionLanguages Add links • This page was last edited on 9 July 2019, at 13:59 (UTC).• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Useand Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the WikimediaFoundation Frank Navarro From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump tonavigationJump to search Frank Navarro Biographical details Born February 15,1930 (age 90) White Plains, New York Alma mater University of Maryland Playingcareer 1950–1952 Maryland Position(s) Guard Coaching career (HC unless noted)1955 Columbia (OL) 1956 Williams (freshmen) 1957–1962 Williams (assistant)1963–1967 Williams 1968–1973 Columbia 1974–1977 Wabash 1978–1984 Princeton Headcoaching record Overall 99–99–6 Tournaments 2–1 (NCAA D-III playoffs) Frank F.Navarro (born February 15, 1930) is a former American football player and coach.He served as the head football coach at Williams College (1963-1967), ColumbiaUniversity (1968-1973), Wabash College (1978-1984), and Princeton University(compiling a career college football coaching record of 99-99-6. In 1953,Navarro graduated from the University of Maryland, College Park, where he playedon the Maryland Terrapins football team. As a standout offensive guard underlegendary head coach and mentor, Jim Tatum, Navarro and the Terrapins advancedto the 1952 Sugar Bowl against Tennessee[1] (29-13), and finished the season asnational champions. As the Korean War broke out, Navarro took action and joinedthe Air Force. After a two-year stint in the Air Force, Navarro headed toTeachers College at Columbia University, where the Lion’s head football coach,Lou Little, offered him the job of assistant offensive line coach under JohnBateman in 1955. Littles’ offer ended Navarro’s pursuit of teaching and got himon the path to a career in coaching. Contents • 1Coaching career • 2Headcoaching record • 3Personal life • 4References Coaching career[edit] Navarrojoined the Williams College coaching staff in 1957 as an assistant to headcoach, Len Watter’s, where Navarro introduced the “Monster Defense[2]” and rangup a slew of shutouts in the early 1960’s. In 1961 and 1962, the Ephs won 12games and 8 of those wins came by blanking the opposition. The monster defensewas designed for the linemen to tie up the blockers and allow the linebackers tomake the tackles. The monster defense featured a new technique – slantingdefensive linemen. The monster, or the scrape linebacker, was the one who wastargeted to make tackles after the linemen tied up the offensive line. While atWilliams, Navarro amassed a head coach record (1963-1967) of 28-11-1 with only 5total losses in last four years, including a 7-0—1 mark in 1977, where he wasnamed New England College Coach of the year[3]. Also, while at Williams, NormanRockwell used Navarro as a model for the coach in his painting, “the Recruit”.After the 1967 season, Navarro left Williams to become the head coach atColumbia (1968-1973). He led the Lions to an impressive 6-3 mark in 1971, withthe three losses coming by a combined total of just eight points. The winning1971 season was the only three winning campaigns for Columbia since 1952.Navarro was named the New York Writers Association Eastern College Coach of theYear[4] for that achievement. Following Columbia, Navarro heading to WabashCollege (1974-1977). During his four years at Wabash, he led the Little Giantsto a combined 26-17 record, including an 18-5 mark over the last two seasons.Wabash had not had a winning season for ten consecutive years until Navarro ledthem to a 7-3 record in 1976. 1977 was even better as he directed the LittleGiants to a 11-2 mark and a second-place finish in the NCAA Division IIINational Championship in a (39-36) shootout loss to Widener as the clock ranout. At Princeton, Navarro’s most gratifying season came in 1981 when the Tigersfinished 5-4-1, including a stunning 35-31 last-second win over defending Ivychampions, Yale University, snapping Princeton’s 15 game losing streak to thearch rival Bulldogs. For his outstanding coaching performance in that game,Navarro was named UPI Coach of the Week[5]. By beating Yale and tying Harvard(17-17), Princeton captured its first Big Three title since 1966. Meanwhile, theTigers’ 5-1-1 Ivy mark was their best League record since they won a share ofthe League title in 1969. Personal life[edit] After Navarro closed out hiscoaching career at Princeton (1978-1984), he moved to Charlestown, Rhode Island,to their summer home, where he spent time working with sons, Damon, Brian andEd, on real estate syndication. For one year, Navarro served as a colorcommentator for UMASS football broadcasts and later spent six years on thebroadcasts of the University of Rhode Island Rams. Navarro also founded theLiteracy Foundation of Rhode Island, serving as board member and helped formedThe Compass Fund, a Navarro family endeavor that funded educational scholarshipsfor under-resourced children in the New London, CT area. Frank Navarro and hiswife, Jill, are parents to seven sons and a daughter, and have twenty-twograndchildren. They currently reside in Mystic, Connecticut and continue to beengaged in a number of family businesses and philanthropic endeavors, and, ofcourse, football. References[edit] 1. ^ firefly-wp. "1952 Game Recap". OfficialSite of the Allstate Sugar Bowl. Retrieved 2019-09-20. 2. ^ "Frank NavarroIntroduced the "Monster Defense" at Williams". Williams. 2011-10-24. Retrieved2019-09-20. 3. ^ Princeton Alumni Weekly. princeton alumni weekly. 1977. 4. ^Jr, Gordon S. White (1971-12-16). "Navarro of Columbia Voted Coach of Year". TheNew York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-09-20. 5. ^ Princeton AlumniWeekly. princeton alumni weekly. 1981. show Links to related articlesCategories: • 1931 births • Living people • Columbia Lions football coaches •Maryland Terrapins football players • Princeton Tigers football coaches • WabashLittle Giants football coaches • Williams Ephs football coaches • People fromWhite Plains, New York • Players of American football from New York (state) •Sportspeople from Westchester County, New York Collegiate secret societies inNorth America From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump tosearch This article needs additional citations for verification. Please helpimprove this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced materialmay be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Collegiate secret societies inNorth America" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2013) (Learnhow and when to remove this template message) There are many collegiate secretsocieties in North America. They vary greatly in their levels of secrecy andindependence from their universities. As the term is used in this article, asecret society is a collegiate society where significant effort is made to keepaffairs, membership rolls, signs of recognition, initiation, or other aspectssecret from the public. Some collegiate secret societies are referred to as'class societies', which restrict membership to one class year. Most classsocieties are restricted to the senior class, and are therefore also calledsenior societies on many campuses. Contents • 1Categorization o 1.1Common traitso 1.2Tapping o 1.3Honoraries • 2History • 3Individual institutions o 3.1ColgateUniversity o 3.2The College of William & Mary o 3.3Cornell University o3.4Dartmouth College o 3.5Dickinson College o 3.6Duke University o 3.7EmoryUniversity o 3.8Furman University o 3.9Florida State University o 3.10GeorgeWashington University o 3.11Georgetown University o 3.12Georgia Institute ofTechnology o 3.13Harvard University o 3.14James Madison University o3.15Longwood University o 3.16New York University (NYU) o 3.17Norwich Universityo 3.18Pennsylvania State University o 3.19Princeton University o 3.20RutgersUniversity o 3.21University of California, Berkeley o 3.22University of Chicagoo 3.23University of Cincinnati o 3.24University of Georgia o 3.25University ofMiami o 3.26University of Michigan o 3.27University of Missouri o 3.28Universityof North Carolina at Chapel Hill o 3.29University of Pennsylvania o3.30University of Southern California o 3.31University of Texas o 3.32Universityof South Carolina o 3.33University of Virginia o 3.34Virginia Military Instituteo 3.35Washington and Lee University o 3.36Washington University in St. Louis o3.37Yale University • 4List of notable North American collegiate secretsocieties • 5See also • 6References • 7Bibliography • 8External linksCategorization[edit] There is no strict rule on the categorization of secretsocieties. Secret societies can have ceremonial initiations, secret signs ofrecognition (gestures, handshakes, passwords), formal secrets, (the 'true' nameof the society, a motto, or a society history); but, college fraternities or"social fraternities" have the same, and some of these elements can also be apart of literary societies, singing groups, editorial boards, and honorary andpre-professional groups. Some secret societies have kept their membershipsecret, for example Seven Society and Gridiron, and some have not, like Skulland Bones (the Yale societies had published their membership lists in theyearbooks and the Yale Daily News). One key concept in distinguishing secretsocieties from fraternities is that, on campuses that have both kinds oforganizations, one can be a member of both (that is, membership is not mutuallyexclusive). Usually, being a member of more than one fraternity is notconsidered appropriate, because that member would have divided loyalties;however, typically, there is not an issue being a member of a secret society anda fraternity, because they are not considered similar organizations or competingorganizations.[1] An especially difficult problem is the degree to which any onesociety is an actual society or is simply an honorary designation. Phi BetaKappa, for example, was a true secret society, but after its secrets weredivulged, the society continued on. It claims today to still be an actualsociety that has meetings, conducts its affairs, and is a living social entity,however membership for most members consists of one evening's initiation, and nomore, which would make the society completely an honorary one in most people'seyes. Many such societies exist which operate as honoraries on one campus, andwhich may have been at one time actual meeting societies, and which are keptalive by one or two dedicated local alumni or an alumni affairs or Dean's officeperson, who see to it that an annual initiation are held every year. Some ofthese frankly state that they are honoraries, other seek to perpetuate the imageof a continuing active society where there is none. While there are someguideline criteria for the neutral observer to understand what sort of societyany given organization is, much of the analysis reverts to what any one societyhas been traditionally understood to be. There are additional means, such associeties that were more or less explicitly established in emulation of someprevious secret society, or using historical records to show that society X wascreated out of society Y. Common traits[edit] There are several common traitsamong these societies. For example, many societies have two part names, such asSkull and Bones or Scroll and Key. Many societies also limit their membership toa specific numerical limit in a class year. Extensive mortuary imagery isassociated with many secret societies, maintaining a pretense of greatseriousness, and clubhouses are often called "tombs". Tapping[edit] Thearchetypical selection process for entry into a collegiate secret society beganat Yale University by a process called tapping.[1] On a publicly announcedevening, Yale undergraduates would assemble informally in the College Yard.Current members of Yale's secret societies would walk through the crowd andliterally tap a prospective member on the shoulder and then walk with him up tothe tapped man's dorm room. There, in private, they would ask him to become amember of their secret society; the inductee had the choice of accepting orrejecting the offer of membership. During this process, it was publicly knownwho was being tapped for the coming year. Today, the selection process is notquite as formal, but is still public.[2] Formal tapping days used to exist atBerkeley, and still exist in a much more formal setting at Missouri.Honoraries[edit] Several campuses distinguish societies called "honoraries" fromsecret societies. An honorary is considered to operate in name only: membershipis an honor given in recognition of some achievement, and such a society isdistinct from a secret society. However, functionally, such organizations canoperate identically to secret societies, and historically, most honorariesoperated on a secret society basis. Phi Beta Kappa is the best-known suchexample, where it originally operated on a secret chapter basis, and it becamethe progenitor of all college fraternities, and at the same time, some timeafter its secrets were made public in the 1830s, Phi Beta Kappa continued on asan honorary. Virtually all the oldest honoraries were once clearly secretsocieties, and the extent to which they are distinct is now ambiguous at best.History[edit] The first collegiate secret society recorded in North America isthat of the F.H.C. Society, established on November 11, 1750 at The College ofWilliam & Mary. Though the letters stand for a Latin phrase, the society isinformally and publicly referred to as the "Flat Hat Club"; its most prominentmembers included St. George Tucker, Thomas Jefferson, and George Wythe. Thesecond-oldest Latin-letter society, the P.D.A. Society ("Please Don't Ask"), in1776 refused entry to John Heath, then a student at the College; rebuffed, he inthe same year established the first Greek-letter secret society at the College,the Phi Beta Kappa, modelling it on the two older fraternities.[3] The Phi BetaKappa society had a rudimentary initiation and maintained an uncertain level ofsecrecy. Those secrets were exposed in the mid-1830s by students at HarvardUniversity acting under the patronage of John Quincy Adams. Since the 1840s, PhiBeta Kappa has operated openly as an academic honor society. The spread of PhiBeta Kappa to different colleges and universities likely sparked the creation ofsuch competing societies as Chi Phi (1824), Kappa Alpha Society (1825), andSigma Phi Society (1827); many continue today as American collegiate socialfraternities (and, later, sororities). Sigma Phi remains the oldest continuouslyoperating national collegiate secret society; it may have declined the foundingmembers of Skull & Bones a charter prior to their forming their own society.A second line of development took place at Yale College, with the creation ofChi Delta Theta (1821) and Skull and Bones (1832): antecedents of what wouldbecome known as class societies. Skull & Bones aroused competition oncampus, bringing forth Scroll & Key (1841), and later Wolf's Head (1883),among students in the senior class. But the prestige of the senior societies wasable to keep the very influential fraternities Alpha Delta Phi and Psi Upsilonfrom ever becoming full four-year institutions at Yale. They remained juniorclass societies there. There were sophomore and freshman societies at Yale aswell. A stable system of eight class societies (two competing chains of fourclass societies each) was in place by the late 1840s. Delta Kappa Epsilon isactually a highly successful junior class society, founded at Yale in 1844. Noneof the 51 chapters the parent chapter spawned operates as a junior society, butDKE did come from the class society system. Likewise, Alpha Sigma Phi startedout as a Yale sophomore society and now has 68 chapters (although, again, noneof Alpha Sigma Phi's chapters have remained sophomore societies). Thedevelopment of class societies spread from Yale to other campuses in thenortheastern States. Seniors at neighboring Wesleyan established a seniorsociety, Skull & Serpent (1865), and a second society, originally a chapterof Skull and Bones, but then independent as a sophomore society, Theta NuEpsilon (1870), which began to drastically increase the number of campuses withclass societies. William Raimond Baird noted in the 1905 edition of his Manualthat, "In addition to the regular fraternities, there are in the Easterncolleges many societies which draw members from only one of the undergraduateclasses, and which have only a few features of the general fraternitysystem."[4] From Wesleyan, the practice spread more widely across the Northeast,with full systems soon in place at Brown, Rutgers, and other institutions. KappaSigma Theta, Phi Theta Psi, Delta Beta Xi, Delta Sigma Phi,[5] were allsophomore societies at Yale, and the two large freshman societies of Delta Kappaand Kappa Sigma Epsilon lived until 1880.[6] Delta Kappa established chapters atAmherst, the University of North Carolina, Virginia, Mississippi, DartmouthCollege, and Centre College. Kappa Sigma Epsilon had chapters at Amherst,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Dartmouth.[6] Other class societies existedat Brown, Harvard, Syracuse, Colgate, Cornell, and other Northeasterninstitutions. At universities such as Colgate University, these secret societieshave evolved and morphed over the years. Theta Nu Epsilon spread to about 120colleges and universities, but many of its chapters operated as three-yearsocieties where operating as a class year society was inappropriate. It is fromthis class society historical base and the desire to emulate the best-known ofall the class societies, Skull & Bones, that senior societies in particularbegan to spread nationally between 1900 and 1930. Junior, sophomore, andfreshman class societies also are to be found at campuses across the countrytoday. Individual institutions[edit] Colgate University[edit] See also:Societies at Colgate University Since being founded in 1819, Colgate Universityhas had a rich tradition of student societies. Over the years, Colgate has hadnumerous secret societies with various degrees of secrecy. Although there havebeen many underground organizations on the Colgate campus, the first secrethonor society on record is the Skull and Scroll society founded in 1908. Membersof the Skull and Scroll wore white hats with a black skull and scroll added tothem. The Skull and Scroll had a rich history of membership with important namesin Colgate history such as Ellery Huntington, Melbourne Read, and HaroldWhitnall.[7] A rival organization, The Gorgon's Head, was founded in 1912 andhad members that wore black hats with a golden emblem. The Gorgon's Head chosepeople for traits such as character, distinguished service, and achievement.[7]These two organizations competed with each other until 1934 when they merged tocreate the Konosioni senior honor society.[7] Konosioni initially was taskedwith enforcing rules, such as mandating that all freshmen have to wear greenbeanies, with the punishment of paddling. The 1970s saw a change in course forthe society as it became focused on leadership and the community. Konosioni nowleads torch-light processions for first-year students during convocation and forseniors during graduation.[7] The College of William & Mary[edit] Mainarticle: Secret societies at the College of William & Mary The College ofWilliam & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, was home to the first known secretcollegiate society in the United States, the F.H.C. Society (founded in 1750).The initials of the society stand for a Latin phrase, likely "Fraternitas,Humanitas, et Cognitio" or "Fraternitas Humanitas Cognitioque" (two renderingsof "brotherhood, humaneness, and knowledge"), but it has long been publiclynicknamed the "Flat Hat Club". William & Mary alumnus and third Americanpresident, Thomas Jefferson, was perhaps the most famous member of the F.H.C.Society.[8] Other notable members of the original society included Col. JamesInnes, St. George Tucker, and George Wythe.[9] Jefferson noted that, "When I wasa student of Wm. & Mary college of this state, there existed a societycalled the F.H.C. society, confined to the number of six students only, of whichI was a member, but it had no useful object, nor do I know whether it nowexists."[10] The best opinion is that the society did not survive the Britishinvasion of Virginia at the end of the American Revolution.[8] The society wasrevived in 1916 (at first, as the Flat Hat Club) and revived again in 1972.[11]William & Mary students John Heath and William Short (Class of 1779) foundedthe nation's first collegiate Greek-letter organization, Phi Beta Kappa, onDecember 5, 1776, as a secret literary and philosophical society. Additionalchapters were established in 1780 and 1781 at Yale and Harvard.[12] With nearly300 chapters across the country and no longer secret, Phi Beta Kappa has grownto become the nation's premier academic honor society.[13] Alumni John Marshalland Bushrod Washington were two of the earliest members of the society, electedin 1778 and 1780, respectively.[14] Although the pressures of the American CivilWar forced several societies to disappear, many were revived during the 20thcentury. Some of the secret societies known to currently exist at the Collegeare: The 7 Society, 13 Club, Alpha Club, Bishop James Madison Society, The Cord,Flat Hat Club, The Spades, W Society, and Wren Society.[8][15] CornellUniversity[edit] Quill and Dagger Tower on the Cornell campus Cornell Universityhas a rich history of secret societies on campus. Andrew Dickson White, thefirst President of Cornell University and himself a Bonesman, is said to haveencouraged the formation of a "secret society" on campus.[16] In the earlyyears, the fraternities were called the "secret societies", but as the Greeksystem developed into a larger, more public entity, "secret society" began torefer only to the class societies, except for the Sigma Phi Society on campus.In the early twentieth century, Cornell students belonged to sophomore, junior,and senior societies, as well as honorary societies for particular fields ofstudy. Liberalization of the 1960s spelled the end of these organizations asstudents rebelled against the establishment. The majority of the societiesdisappeared or became inactive in a very short time period, and today, the fourorganizations which operate on campus are: Sphinx Head (founded in 1890), DerHexenkries (founded in 1892), Quill and Dagger (founded in 1893), and Order ofOmega (founded in 1959).[17][18] Dartmouth College[edit] The tomb of the Sphinxsecret society at Dartmouth College Main article: Dartmouth College studentgroups Dartmouth College's Office of Residential Life states that the earliestsenior societies on campus date to 1783 and "continue to be a vibrant traditionwithin the campus community". Six of the eight senior societies keep theirmembership secret, while the other societies maintain secretive elements.According to the college, "approximately 25% of the senior class members areaffiliated with a senior society."[19] The college's administration of thesociety system at Dartmouth focuses on keeping track of membership and tappinglists, and differs from that of Yale's, though there are historical parallelsbetween the two colleges' societies.[20][21] Dickinson College[edit] The Raven'sClaw is an all-male senior honorary society at Dickinson College. It was foundedin 1896, making it the first society unique to Dickinson College. Membership islimited to seven senior men who are selected by the seven previous members. Thenew members are chosen based on a variety of factors, these include: campusleadership, a solid academic record, and athletic participation. New members areinducted in a "Tapping Ceremony" which is held on the "Old Stone Steps of OldWest". The ceremony is traditionally conducted during commencement weekend. Theyare called "claws" or "white hats", denoting the white caps they wear aroundcampus to signify unity and loyalty. While the members of the group are known,the majority of their actions and traditions are concealed. The group pridesitself in serving the Dickinson College and Carlisle, Pennsylvania communitiesthrough discreet service activities. The group's alumni organization is alsoresponsible for founding one of the college's largest scholarship funds and theMcAndrews Fund for athletics. Founded in 2001, The Order of Scroll and Key is asenior honor society at Dickinson College which recognizes seven senior men eachyear. Every member is tapped at the end of their junior year on the basis oftheir dedication to the College and the surrounding Carlisle community. Theircurrent membership includes fraternity presidents, community advisers, communityservice leaders, as well as many other individuals. Their alumni have gone on tobe successful community leaders, businessmen, artists, etc. The Order of Scrolland Key works to benefit numerous area charities and philanthropies, and inrecent years has supported Carlisle C.A.R.E.S., Safe Harbor, and Sadler HealthClinic, among others. As one of Dickinson's distinctive "hat" societies, memberscan always be recognized by the gray hats that they wear.[22][23] Wheel andChain is Dickinson College's Senior Women's Honorary Society. Founded in 1924,members are elected in the spring of their junior year on the basis ofparticipation in campus activities, service to the college and community,leadership skills and personal character. Membership is limited to ten seniorwomen. New members are inducted in a "Tapping Ceremony" which is held on the"Old Stone Steps of Old West" in April. In May, each incoming Wheel and Chainclass ceremoniously rings the bell in Denny Hall during Commencement ceremonies.Colloquially known as the "blue hats", members are known to the public; however,the society's activities remain secret.[22] Duke University[edit] Main article:Secret societies at Duke University Throughout its history, Duke University hashosted several secret societies. The Tombs is a now defunct society founded in1903 whose members were known to tie bells around their ankles. Detailsregarding its purpose, selection of members and the importance of the bells arestill unknown.[24] Two of the best-known societies were the Order of the RedFriars and the Order of the White Duchy. The Order of the Red Friars was foundedin 1913 with an initial purpose to promote school spirit. Later, the groupdeclared a change of mission to focus more on fostering loyalty to DukeUniversity. The Order, as it was colloquially-known, was semi-secret. This isbecause the selection of new members, known as tapping, was held on the steps ofthe Duke Chapel in broad daylight. As the years went on, the rites of tappingbecame more elaborate; in the final and most traditional form of the rite, ared-hooded and robed figure publicly tapped new men into membership on the stepsof the chapel. Some notable members of the Order were President Richard M.Nixon, William P. Few, and Rex Adams. The Order of the White Duchy was foundedin May 1925 by the Order of the Red Friars. The Red Friars chose what theyconsidered the seven outstanding female members of the Class of 1925 to organizea similar organization, although it was not to be a sister organization. From1925 on, new members were tapped into the order by the seven members of theWhite Duchy from the previous year. Members were known by the white carnationthey wore on specific days of the year. Throughout the 1960s, both societiesfaced charges of elitism and struggled to tap students at an increasinglyhostile university. In 1968, the White Duchy disbanded and in 1971, the Order ofthe Red Friars was disbanded by alumni who determined that the group hadoutlived its usefulness.[25] However, rumors surrounding its continued, albeitmodified, form exist today. Two current secret societies - the Trident Societyand the Old Trinity Club - are both thought to have been founded in the wake ofthe disbanding of the Order of the Red Friars. The Old Trinity Club is rumoredto have started when an Editor-in-Chief of the Duke Chronicle was passed up formembership and decided to create his own, rival society. The Old Trinity Club isthe most visible society on campus today, as its members are seen walking aroundcampus wearing black graduation gowns and sunglasses on certain days of theyear. They follow a set pattern, holding their arms in symbols in the air androutinely stopping and shouting "Eruditio et Religio." A November 2007 editionof Rival Magazine quoted Associate Vice President for Student Affairs and Deanof Students, Sue Wasiolek T'r76, claiming that "the Old Trinity Club has died,or at least in terms of its original manifestation. The way it manifests todayis very different than when it was at its finest." It is said that students donot take the society seriously, viewing it more as a social fraternity than asecret society. For years, rumors of a "TS" existing on campus as a continuationof the Order of the Red Friars' original mission. Only recently has it come tolight that "TS" stands for "Trident Society". This society keeps the strictestsilence about its membership and mission except for two instances when itsexistence came to be known. The first, in the November 2007 edition of the RivalMagazine, explained its ideas. According to a "cryptic letter sealed with wax",the society is "rooted in ideals that stretch back to the university'sfounding". The letter continued: "Our founders recognized that similarinstitutions existed at other top universities (Skull and Bones at Yale, TheSevens at UVA, Quill and Dagger at Cornell) and saw a void to fill at Duke". Assuch, its members are not well known on campus. They "do not join to gain fame"or recognition; that said, members of the society are or were Rhodes Scholars,commencement speakers, players for Coach Krzyzweski, Phi Beta Kappas, A.B. &B.N. Duke Scholars, and leaders of the most influential groups on campus. Thesecrecy around this group drove Samantha Lachman to investigate the society in2013.[26] Her subsequent article, "Trasked with Secrecy", revealed many of thesecrets of the group. She discovered the names of several prominent members,that the red roses & white carnations sometimes found at the base of theJames B. Duke statue on West Campus are their calling card, and even that theyhave uninhibited access to the Duke University Chapel for their InitiationRites.[27] Emory University[edit] Founded in 1836, Emory University is aprominent research institution in the city of Atlanta, GA. Emory has five secretsocieties, including the Paladin Society, D.V.S. Senior Honor Society, Ducemus,Speculum and The Order of Ammon. Furman University[edit] Founded in 1826 FurmanUniversity is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in SouthCarolina. Until 1992 the university was, to varying degrees affiliated with theSouthern Baptist Convention which banned social organizations of all kinds. Thisdrove students seeking such groups underground. The most notable of these earlysecret societies was called "The Star and Lamp", however it is known today onmore than 100 campuses as Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity. After being founded at TheCollege of Charleston in 1904, Pi Kappa Phi operated "sub-rosa", or under therose of secrecy, for much of the twentieth century so as to hide theiractivities from the university's Baptist administrators. During this time SigmaAlpha Epsilon and Tau Kappa Epsilon operated respectively as "The Centaur" and"The Knights Eternal" while a fourth organization, "The Robert E. LeeFraternity" was concurrently active which would go on to merge with today'sKappa Alpha Order. For this reason, Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity's official flower istoday, the rose, their sweetheart is called the rose and one of the group's mostcherished songs is "The Rose Song". The rose and "sub-rosa" concept are presentin the group's esoteric literature and rituals. Furthermore, the fraternity'schapter at Furman carries a unique flag which bears a red rose in the upperright-hand corner.[28] On campus today the only known active secret society isThe Quaternion Club, although many are rumored to exist. Quaternion, which datesback to 1903, taps four juniors and four seniors each year in the late winter orearly spring. The selection process is guarded but is thought to be controlledby current Quaternions currently in residence at the school. The initiationritual and all group meetings take place in the "Old College", the originalbuilding in which James C. Furman taught the university's first courses inGreenville in 1851. It is also widely known that Quaternions are given lifetimeaccess to this building upon initiation which also houses the controls for the59 bell Burnside Carillon inside Furman's iconic bell tower. Famous Quaternionshave included U.S. Secretary of Education Richard Riley, South Carolina GovernorMark Sanford, and Clement Haynsworth, a nominee for the U.S. Supreme Court.[29]There are also a number of strongly rumored secret societies with lessdocumentation including The Magnolia Society, which has apparently formed withinthe past decade and taps men and women from all classes into something like anelitist supper club. Magnolians, as they are called, can be identified only ontheir way to or from a "happening" by the sweetgrass rose they wear on theirbreast. The Black Swan or Paladin Brotherhood was a darker organization rumoredto have operated on and off from the late 1940s to the mid 1980s, utilizing theunfinished attic of Judson dormitory for occult rituals. Florida StateUniversity[edit] The Burning Spear Society is a secret society at Florida StateUniversity, founded in 1993. Burning Spear was founded on July 14, 1993 by threestudents initially to promote Charlie Ward's Heisman campaign.[30] By August1993, sixteen students joined together to charter this new organization, andwithin one year's time seven additional students would be initiated intomembership. Though not much is publicly available on the dealings of theorganization, members often cite the provision of political, professional andfinancial support of FSU community members and efforts that strengthen theuniversity's traditions as two of their most basic ambitions. George WashingtonUniversity[edit] Founded in 1821, George Washington University is located in theheart of the nation's capital. In 1997, University President Stephen JoelTrachtenberg brought together student leaders from all parts of the universityto support fellowship, make GW a better university, and behave in slightlyfrivolous ways. The secret society was named The Order of the Hippo, after abronze statue of a hippo, also known as the River Horse (sculpture), displayedprominently in the center of campus.[31] The Order takes its oath from a plaquelocated on the front of the hippo statue, which reads, "Art for wisdom, Sciencefor joy, Politics for beauty, and a Hippo for hope."[31] The Order has a ritualbook, which is passed down from year to year and the main aim of the group is toenact Random Acts of Kindness around GW's campus to create a better environmentfor all students. Georgetown University[edit] Georgetown’s leading secretsociety is the Society of Jesus founded as an all-male fraternity of would-beCatholic priests at the University of Paris (the Sorbonne) in 1534. In 1773, theJesuits were suppressed by the Pope but in Maryland they stayed organizedsecretly and in 1789 the suppressed Jesuits helped staff Georgetown College forits founder, America's first Catholic bishop, Archbishop John Carroll; later tobecome Georgetown University. The Jesuits were long hostile to collegefraternities and societies that tried to form at Georgetown like at othercolleges in the 19th century because they could not control them, but thehostility had waned by 1920. One century later, Georgetown has severalfraternities and sororities, independent of the University, and a few all-male,all-female and co-ed secret societies.[32] Of these, the most prominent is theSecond Stewards Society, the uninterrupted successor to The Stewards Society.Despite debunked rumors that they had been founded by the Jesuits,[33] theStewards were first organized by students in the early 1800’s as a component ofThe Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The latter existed until 1970.[34] Inthe late 1800’s, alumnus John Agar (C'1876) organized Steward alumni to buttressthe Jesuits’ often short-sighted and incompetent administration. Soon afterGeorgetown’s iconic Healy Building was completed, its Alumni Association wasfounded, and an independent Board of Regents took on fund raising.[35] TheStewards dissolved in the late 1990’s due to an internecine disagreementregarding the pursuit of its original mission, in effect ousting a smallminority. The Second Stewards Society organized within one hour under theStewards organizing laws and traditions, committed to maintaining a focus onservice. A third Stewards Society formed in 1997 claiming to be theoriginal,[36] however in 2019 it went co-ed. The Stewards are known to tapstudent leaders for their service, advocacy, and school spirit. The Stewardswork mostly anonymously aiming to foster Georgetown’s traditions. Many studentclubs at Georgetown were either founded or revived by Stewards, and public taxrecords show that they put their significant wealth into an expansive charitableprogram to benefit the university, and especially student efforts. While notmuch is known about the secret society, a Georgetown student newspaper publisheddetails of their existence in 1988 which sparked outcry from students whoprotested that the society promoted elitism and exclusivity.[37] It was believedthat the Stewards had disbanded as a result, but news stories throughout thepast three decades show that the Stewards are still very active and at theforefront of the Georgetown community.[38] A major scandal erupted in campuspolitics[39] during the Georgetown University Student Association executiveelections in February 2013, when two of the leading candidates (along with someof their top campaign staffers) were outed as Stewards. Each was from one of thetwo Steward societies.[40][41][42] The school newspaper, The Hoya, maintainedits support of the candidate revealed to be a Steward.[43] Similarly, four ofthe eight presidential and vice presidential candidates in the 2014 electionwere also revealed to be Stewards, though the issue was not as contentious as ithad been the year before.[44] Ending a generation of silence, the Stewardspublished an op-ed in 2020 that confirmed their alumni reach and gave a glimpseinto their mysterious culture and service purpose.[45] Notably, they demur onbeing considered a secret society, preferring to be considered a “privateassociation.” Prominent contemporary Stewards include William Peter Blatty, theOscar award-winning author and producer of The Exorcist, and Richard McCooey,the founder of The Tombs rathskeller and 1789 Restaurant in Georgetown, D.C.Georgia Institute of Technology[edit] Main article: ANAK Society The AnakSociety is the oldest known secret society and honor society at the GeorgiaInstitute of Technology (Georgia Tech) in Atlanta, Georgia. Founded in 1908,Anak's purpose is "to honor outstanding juniors and seniors who have shown bothexemplary leadership and a true love for Georgia Tech".[46] The society's namerefers to Anak, a biblical figure said to be the forefather of a race of giants.Although not founded as a secret society, Anak has kept its activities andmembership rosters confidential since 1961. Membership is made public upon astudent's graduation or a faculty member's retirement. The Anak Society'smembership comprises at least 1,100 Georgia Tech graduates, faculty members, andhonorary members. The society has been influential in the history of GeorgiaTech. Anak played a major role in establishing several of Georgia Tech's mostactive student organizations – including Georgia Tech's yearbook, the Blueprint;Georgia Tech's student newspaper, The Technique,[47] and Georgia Tech's StudentGovernment Association – as well as several lasting Georgia Tech traditions. Thesociety also claims involvement in a number of civil rights projects, mostnotably in peacefully integrating Georgia Tech's first African-American studentsin 1961, preventing the Ku Klux Klan from setting up a student chapter atGeorgia Tech. Harvard University[edit] Main article: Final club Owl ClubClubhouse in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Harvard does not have secret societies inthe usual sense, though it does have final clubs, fraternities, sororities, anda variety of other secret or semi-secret organizations. Final clubs aresecretive about their election procedures, and they have secret initiations andmeetings. However, there is little secrecy about who is a member. They arelarger than secret societies generally are (approximately forty students perclub). Guests are admitted under restrictions. However the Porcellian, AD, Foxand Fly clubs are somewhat stricter than the others, having rules againstadmitting non-members to most areas of their buildings. "Punch Season" and the"Final Dinner" is analogous to "Tap" at Yale. As of the Fall of 2015, one of theall-male final clubs has gone co-ed (the Spee Club). The seven remainingall-male clubs are in the process of going co-ed or are fighting pressures to doso. Final clubs at Harvard include The Porcellian Club (1791), originally calledThe Argonauts; The Delphic Club (1900); The Fly Club, (1836), a successor ofAlpha Delta Phi; The Phoenix - S K Club (1897); The Owl Club, originally calledPhi Delta Psi, (1896); and The Fox Club (1898). Co-ed clubs include The SpeeClub, The Aleph (formerly Alpha Epsilon Pi) (2001), and The K.S (formerly KappaSigma) (1905). There are also five female clubs: The Bee Club (1991), The IsisClub (2000), The Sablière Society (2002), The Pleiades Society (2002), and LaVie Club (2008). Harvard also has three fraternities, Sigma Chi (1992), SigmaAlpha Epsilon (1893), and Delta Kappa Epsilon (currently a colony), and foursororities: Delta Gamma (1994), Kappa Kappa Gamma (2003), Kappa Alpha Theta(1993), and Alpha Phi (2013). These organizations are semi-secret in nature,have secret initiation processes and meetings but a more transparent process forgaining membership. All four sororities and the Sigma Chi fraternity also haverules against admitting non-members to many parts of their buildings. Anotherall-male social group is The Oak Club (2005), a successor of Delta Upsilon(1890) and later The D.U. "Duck" Club (1940), which holds events but does notown property in Harvard Square. There are also several final clubs andfraternities which are now defunct, including Pi Eta Speakers, The D.U. "Duck"Club, Delta Upsilon, Pi Kappa Alpha, and The Iroquois. Approximately 10% of menand 5% of women are in final clubs. Approximately 7% of men and 15% of women arein Greek letter organizations. Additionally, an unknown number of students arein other secretive on-campus groups. Other secretive social groups include theHasty Pudding Club, Harvard Lampoon, Harvard Advocate, the Signet Society, andThe Seneca. Finally, Harvard Lodge is a university Masonic lodge, founded in1922 by Harvard Law School Dean/Professor Roscoe Pound, members of the HarvardSquare & Compass Club, and members of the Harvard Masonic Club (whichincluded Theodore Roosevelt). It is the oldest academic lodge in North America,its membership is restricted to males with a Harvard affiliation, and itoperates in the building of Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, overlooking BostonCommon. James Madison University[edit] Although the members remain reticent,James Madison University has only one known secret society. This society isnamed IN8 (pronounced /ɪˈneɪt/). The name references the college's founding in1908 and the emblem of the organization consists of an infinity sign with an ‘I’and ‘N’ embedded within the curve. Most notably, IN8 is known for their laud of8 students per semester who have outstanding college careers and fulfill theorganization's 8 supposed core values: Loyalty, Benevolence, Service, Justice,Integrity, Intellect, Character, and Spirit.[48] However, this is not their onlyknown function, IN8 also provides philanthropic gifts to the University. Thesundial located by the Quad, which is a famous landmark for many of thestudents, was donated by the group. IN8 hosts a website bearing their emblemwhich states “The IN8 Foundation is a benevolent charitable organizationsupporting the James Madison University community.” The IN8 Foundation wasmentioned in The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2009. Writing on studentinvolvement at James Madison University, Insider Guides states that IN8 is “Notnecessarily the most popular but one of the most famed among these [studentgroups] is IN8, JMU’s secret society. Every year, it gives out eight letters tostudents and faculty who have significantly impacted their society to let themknow that their work does not go unnoticed. In addition, in 2003, they donated ahuman sundial, a spot in the middle of campus where a person stands on aparticular month’s mark and casts a shadow on plaques six or seven feet awaythat designate the time.”[49] Longwood University[edit] Secret societies havealso long been part of Virginia's third-oldest public institution, which beganin 1839 as an all-female seminary. One of the first of its kind, Longwood hasundergone multiple changes in name and became co-educational in 1967 andtransitioned from its previous name, Longwood College, to its final name,Longwood University, in 2002. Longwood currently has three secret societies, theoldest of which is CHI, founded on October 15, 1900 by members from three ofLongwood's four sorority Alpha chapters-- Kappa Delta, Zeta Tau Alpha, and SigmaSigma Sigma. The society was originally called the "Society of Societies" whoseoriginal intentions were to hold students accountable and enrich the lives oftheir peers and professors by calling out bad behavior, taking hooded walkscalled "CHI Walks" and hosting a bon-fire at the end of each academic yearcalled "CHI burning" where senior members would reveal themselves to campus.Today, CHI represents something very different, and works on behalf of thecollege to represent Longwood spirit—the blue and white spirit. Members maketheir presence known through leaving small "droppings" or tokens around campus,writing letters to Longwood students, faculty, and staff which celebrate theirachievements, and the members of CHI "commend" members during their annual "CHIBurning" which remains to this day. The mark of the society can be found on thesidewalks of the campus, where their symbol (a simple geometric version ofRuffner Hall) is painted in blue. Students, faculty, and staff do not step onthese symbols as a means of paying respect to the society, the Longwood spirit,and the preservation of said spirit. The physical presence of CHI can also befound on campus because the society has donates generously to many campusfundraising campaigns, and donated CHI Fountain, located at the center ofcampus, which along its top stone, reads the public motto of the society. Thethird-oldest and second-longest consistently operating secret society atLongwood is Princeps, which was founded in 1992 on the premise of promotingcitizen leadership and academic excellence. The society is represented by thenumber seven, with a seven-point crown above the number, most commonly in black.The societies colors are red, gold, and black, and they often commend members ofthe community with letters, tokens of achievement, and other gifts. Princeps,meaning "leader" in Latin, also awards paper cutout versions of their symbol,the seven, to students who achieve both Dean's List and President's List. Thosewho achieve Dean's List receive a black seven and those who achieve President'sList receive a red seven. Princeps also recognizes students with wooden sevens,and the senior members of the society reveal themselves on graduation morning onthe front steps of Lancaster Hall, home to the President's Office, at 7:07am,where they appear from within the crowd or from the building wearing a red sashwith their symbol, the 7 and crown, stitched on the sash which drapes acrosstheir body. Membership selection for this society, just like CHI, remains asecret. Princeps has no known ties to the University of Virginia's 7Society.[citation needed] New York University (NYU)[edit] Several secretsocieties exist at New York University, including Red Dragon Society, which onlytakes both "distinguished" male and female seniors from the College of Arts andScience, Knights of the Lamp, which only takes seniors from the Stern School ofBusiness, and the Philomathean Society (which operated from 1832 to 1888),Eucleian Society (from 1832 to the 1940s), and Andiron Club.[50] Only Red DragonSociety and Knights of the Lamp still exist, though there have been attempts torevive the other societies at the university among recent classes and incomingundergraduate classes. Edgar Allan Poe was a frequent speaker at thePhilomathean Society and the Eucleian Society, and lived on the Square. Inaddition, NYU's first yearbook was formed by fraternities and "secret societies"at the university.[51] Norwich University[edit] Secret societies are banned inall military academies in the United States. Norwich University was the lastmilitary academy to outlaw secret societies, doing so in 1998. The stated reasonfor doing so was controversy regarding hazing and abuse of cadets. Prior to theban Norwich was home to a handful of long standing secret societies such as theOld Crow Society, Night Riders, and Skull and Swords. Like the other militaryacademies, Norwich does not allow fraternities, having been banned in 1962.However, Norwich has an Alpha chapter of the Theta Chi Society now known asTheta Chi Fraternity on the basis that it is not a traditional fraternity, butadmits those in pursuit of engineering degrees and thus an order to honoracademic accomplishments akin to Phi Theta Kappa.[52][53][54] Pennsylvania StateUniversity[edit] There are currently three well-known societies at PennsylvaniaState University: Parmi Nous (1907), Lion's Paw (1908), and Skull and Bones(1912).[55] Penn State has seen a number of different honorary societies withvarying levels of publicity and activity. In 1907, the first "hat" society,so-named because of such organizations' emblematic headwear, Druids, was formed;similar societies expanded and included dedicated groups for women (e.g. Chimes,Scrolls) and men (e.g. Blue Key, Androcles) based on class standing andextracurricular involvement.[56][57] These groups were temporarily governed by a"Hat Society Council" which was made up of representatives from eachorganization from 1948 to 1958.[58] Hat societies were involved in Universitylife passing down traditions (called "freshmen customs") for first-yearstudents, forming honor guards for football players as they went on to thefield, and recognizing leaders, scholars, and athletes in the Penn Statecommunity.[59] The three remaining senior societies no longer operate aspublicly but continue to serve the University in a variety of functions. Lion'sPaw is closely associated with conservation efforts at Mount Nittany in StateCollege, PA.[60] Princeton University[edit] Main article: Eating clubs(Princeton University) Colonial Club Princeton's eating clubs are notfraternities, nor are they secret societies by any standard measure, but theyare often seen as being tenuously analogous. Additionally, Princeton has anumber of genuine secret societies; perhaps the best-known is a chapter of St.Anthony Hall, otherwise known as Delta Psi, a co-ed literary society. Whilemembership in the Princeton chapter of Delta Psi is public, the society is knownto maintain a secret president, referred to as Number One, whose identity isknown only to members for the duration of his or her office.[61][62] The 21Club, an all-male drinking society, is also a notorious Princeton secretsociety.[63] Princeton also has a long tradition of underground societies. Whilesecret society membership is relatively public at some schools, Princeton'shistorical secret society rolls are very secretive because of Woodrow Wilson'sban on clandestine organizations and his threat to expel secret fraternitymembers from Princeton. One such society is Phi (pronounced fē),[citationneeded] a society dating to 1929 when members of the Whig society splintered offafter the merger of the Whig and Cliosophic debating societies. Phi's membershipis secretive and difficult to discern, because no more than ten active "Phis"exist at one time: Phis usually receive offers at the end of their third year.As an adaptation to Princeton's stringent anti-society rules, each active classdoes not meet the preceding class that selected it until the First of June(after their first Reunions and before graduation). 1.6... is the Golden Ratio,hence the name Phi. Another society is the exclusively female Foxtail Society,founded in 1974 soon after Princeton began admitting women in 1969. The societywas founded in response to the lack of eating clubs open to women. Whileadmittance numbers have changed over the years, the Foxtail selects anywherefrom 10 to 15 women to become members at the end of their junior year. RutgersUniversity[edit] Cap and Skull (1900) Class of '19; Paul Robeson at far left. Aseighth oldest of the colleges in the United States, Rutgers University has hadseveral secret societies on campus. One of which, a likely hoax, claims to beestablished in 1834.[64] Students associated with these societies were allegedlyinvolved in the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War in 1876.[65] At the turn of the20th century, Rutgers had developed two full sets of class year societies basedon the Yale model,[66] down to the freshman societies such as the Chain andBones and Serpent and Coffin.[67] The senior class societies at Rutgers includedthe Brotherhood of the Golden Dagger (1898–1940), Casque and Dagger (1901), andCap and Skull (1900). Cap and Skull was dissolved in the 1960s after complaintsof elitism. In 1982 the name was revived for university-sanctioned senior-yearhonor society. University of California, Berkeley[edit] The residence of theSigma Phi Society of the Thorsen House in Berkeley, California. The Universityof California, Berkeley is home to a small handful of secret societies. Skull& Keys, founded in 1892 by Frank Norris, is the earliest secret society atBerkeley and is composed of a select few members from certain fraternitychapters on campus. The second oldest is the Sigma Phi Society of the ThorsenHouse (popularly shortened to Thorsen), founded in 1912, which acts independentto all of Berkeley's fraternal traditions and regulations and has resided in thefamous Thorsen House since 1942. The campus is also home to the Order of theGolden Bear, established in 1900, which discourages the term "secret society"despite operating with a secret membership. The order is composed ofundergraduate and graduate students, alumni, faculty, and administrators with acommitment to the betterment of the university, although its significance andrecognition is considerably smaller presently than it was in its earliest years.University of Chicago[edit] The University of Chicago has never had asubstantial number of active secret societies; indeed, shortly after theuniversity's founding, the faculty of the university released a resolutionsuggesting that the exclusionary structure of many such societies made themantithetical to the democratic spirit of the university.[68] Nevertheless, onenotable exception - The Society of the Owl and Serpent, a secret honors societyfounded in 1896 - was active for over 70 years.[69] The Society voted toofficially disband in 1968 as a sign of its "counterculture" values, electing todonate its office space to the student radio group WHPK and use its remainingfunds for the purchase of an FM transmitter.[70] Notable alumni of the Societyof the Owl and Serpent include former Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens,who graduated from the university in 1941.[71] University of Cincinnati[edit]The University of Cincinnati hosts several secret societies, locally referred toas honoraries. The first such organization is Sigma Sigma, founded in 1898 whichis open to upperclassmen men on the campus. Sigma Sigma is responsible for theSigma Sigma commons on the UC campus, along with other donations to the campus.Cincinnatus (co-ed) was founded in 1917 with the Men of METRO founded in 1946.CWEST and Sigma Phi exist as the female counterparts to Men of METRO and SigmaSigma, respectively. Many of the university's prominent alumni claim membershipto one or many of these organizations. Each organization coordinates at leastone annual event: Men of Metro and CWEST host an annual Talent Show, Cincinnatusa charitable run, Sigma Phi the Homecoming dance, and Sigma Sigma an annualcarnival. University of Georgia[edit] The University of Georgia is home to achapter of the Order of Omega, an honor society which selects the top 3% ofGreek Fraternity students for membership.[72] A group unique to UGA is the men'ssecret society known as the Order of the Greek Horsemen which annually inductsfive fraternity men, all leaders of the Greek Fraternity system. Likewise, thehighest achievement a male can attain at the University is claimed by theGridiron Secret Society. Palladia Secret Society was founded in the early 1960sas the highest honor a woman can attain at the University of Georgia. Palladiainducts approximately 12 women each fall and has an extensive network of alumni,including administrators at the University of Georgia and prominent femaleleaders across the state. The Panhellenic sororities also have a secret societyknown as Trust of the Pearl, which inducts five accomplished sorority women eachspring. The Sphinx Club is the oldest honorary society at the University ofGeorgia, recognizing students, faculty, staff and alumni who have madesignificant contributions to the University, the State of Georgia and thenation. Membership to this organization is not secret; however, all business andhappenings of the organization are. University of Miami[edit] Iron Arrow HonorSociety Iron Arrow Honor Society, founded in 1926 in conjunction with theUniversity of Miami's opening, is the highest honor attained at the Universityof Miami. Based on Seminole Indian tradition, Iron Arrow recognizes thoseindividuals in the University of Miami community who exemplify the fivequalities of Iron Arrow: Scholarship, Leadership, Character, Humility and Loveof Alma Mater. University of Michigan[edit] The University of Michigan Ann Arborhosts three secret societies: Order of Angell, Phoenix, and the Vulcan SeniorEngineering Society. Order of Angell and Phoenix were once under the umbrellagroup "The Tower Society", the name referring to their location in the top ofthe Michigan Union tower. Michigauma (Order of Angell) was all-male while Adara(Phoenix) was all-female. Order of Angell, known as "Order", is an evolvedversion of a previous society Michigauma. It was inspired by the rituals andculture of the Native Americans of the United States. Since its creation in 1902the group is credited with creating Dance Marathon, one of the largestcharitable events at the University of Michigan and construction of the MichiganUnion for which it was granted permanent space in the top floors of the towerwhich they refer to as the "tomb".[73][74] In 2007 the group changed its name toOrder of Angell. Phoenix, (formerly known as Adara) holding to astrologicalroots, formed in the late 1970s by the women leaders on campus. In the early1980s they joined the tower society and occupied the sixth floor of the towerjust below Michigamua. Phoenix, alongside Order, is now co-ed. Vulcan SeniorEngineering Society, known as "the Vulcans", occupied the fifth floor of theUnion tower though were not formally a part of the tower society. They drawtheir heritage from the Roman god Vulcan. The group which used to do its tappingpublicly is known for its long black robes and for its financial contributionsof the University of Michigan College of Engineering. University ofMissouri[edit] Alpha Theta of Theta Nu Epsilon in 1917 In 1895, the Alpha ThetaChapter of the Theta Nu Epsilon sophomore society was founded under the guidanceof faculty member Luther DeFoe. DeFoe also served as a mentor to the foundingmembers of the QEBH senior men's society, which was founded in 1898. MysticalSeven was founded in 1907 and has become the second best known society oncampus. Some have suggested that Missouri's Mystical Seven was modeled afterVirginia's Seven Society, which had been established just a couple yearsearlier. Other secret societies followed, including Society of the Hidden Eyefor junior, senior men, LSV for senior women, Thadstek for freshman, sophomoremen, Tomb and Key for freshman, sophomore men, and Kappa Kappa whose membershipcomposition was unknown. During this period of rapid expansion of secretsocieties, a network of sub-rosa inter-fraternity organizations also establisheditself on campus with no purpose other than socializing and mischief making.This network, known commonly as the "Greek Underworld" included organizationssuch as Seven Equals, Kappa Beta Phi, Sigma Phi Sigma, Kappa Nu Theta, and SigmaAlpha Beta. QEBH at Tap Day 2006 It is currently home to at least six secrethonor societies that still participate in an annual public Taies Day ceremony atthe end of each spring semester. QEBH, Mystical Seven, LSV, Alpha Xi chapter ofOmicron Delta Kappa, Friars chapter of Mortar Board, and Rollins Society eachuse the Tap Day ceremony at the conclusion of the year to reveal the members whowere initiated over the past year. Missouri is one of few remaining institutionsin which the local Omicron Delta Kappa and Mortar Board chapters carry out muchof their work in secrecy. The Jefferson Society, which attempted to take part inTap Day and was denied, claims to have been around since 1862. In addition toTap Day activities, several of the societies maintain a public presence duringsome athletic events. QEBH is the caretaker of the Victory Bell, along withNebraska's Society of Innocents, awarded to the winner of the Missouri–NebraskaRivalry football game each year. The Friars Chapter of Mortar Board exchanges agavel with Nebraska (The Black Masque Chapter of Mortar Board) at each MU-UNLfootball game, symbolizing the rivalry between the Universities. Mystical Sevenand Oklahoma's Pe-et Society were likewise entrusted with the Peace Pipe trophythat was awarded to the winner of the biennial Missouri-Oklahoma football match.Omicron Delta Kappa previously served as caretaker of the Indian War Drum trophyawarded to the winner of the annual Border War football game between Missouriand Kansas.[75][76] University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill[edit] HippolCastle, headquarters of the Order of Gimghoul The library at the University ofNorth Carolina at Chapel Hill contains the archives of the Order of Gimghoul, asecret society headquartered at the Gimghoul Castle.[77][78] The order wasfounded in 1889 by Robert Worth Bingham, Shepard Bryan, William W. Davies,Edward Wray Martin, and Andrew Henry Patterson, who were students at thetime.[79] The society is open to male students (rising juniors and higher), andfaculty members by invitation. The society centers itself around the legend ofPeter Dromgoole, a student who mysteriously disappeared from the UNC campus in1833.[80] The founders originally called themselves the Order of Dromgoole, butlater changed it to the Order of Gimghoul to be, "in accord with midnight andgraves and weirdness", according to the university's archives.[79] Tradition hasit that the order upheld the "Dromgoole legend and the ideals of Arthurianknighthood and chivalry". From all accounts, the order is social in nature, andhas no clandestine agenda. Membership is closed and information about the orderis strictly confidential, as is access to archives which are less than 50 yearsold.[79] The Order of the Gorgon's Head, another secret society at theUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, was founded in 1896 by DariusEatman, Edward Kidder Graham, Ralph Henry Graves, Samuel Selden Lamb, RichardHenry Lewis, Jr., and Percy DePonceau Whitaker. Membership has always beenlimited to male members of the junior, senior, professional, and post-graduateclasses along with male faculty members. Inductees may not be members of othersocieties. Officers include Princeps (chief officer), Quaestor, and Scriptor.The purpose of the Order is to promote friendship, good will, and socialfellowship among its members. The Order of the Gorgon's Head was one of two"junior orders" established at the University in the 1890s. The two orders hadwritten agreements that they would not attempt to recruit freshmen orsophomores. Each order had a lodge (the Gimghouls later built a castle), wheremembers gathered for meetings and events. Each had secret rituals based onmyths. Those of the Order of the Gorgon's Head centered on the myth of theGorgons, three monstrous sisters prominent in ancient Greek and Roman lore. TheUniversity's library also contains the archives of the Dialectic andPhilanthropic Societies. The Societies were founded in 1795 by some of the firststudents to attend the university, and are the oldest public-school societies inthe nation. While at first maintaining strict secrecy in their proceedings, theSocieties' meetings are now generally open to the public; however, the Societiesreserve the right at all times to call an "Executive Session", at which pointall non-members are escorted from the chambers. All undergraduates may attemptto join one of the two societies by petitioning, but only a select few areadmitted, upon mutual agreement between current Society members. Most recently,in 2011, the Daily Tar Heel reported the first of two donations to campusentities by a secret society named Infinity. In 2011, the society gifted $888.88to the Eve Carson Scholarship fund, which honors the late Student Body PresidentEve Carson.[81] In 2012, the society gifted $888.88 to the Student EnrichmentFund, a student-created fund allowing students to apply for grants to attendoff-campus events such as speeches, conferences or other academic orextracurricular opportunities.[82] The significance of the digit '8' comes fromthe symbol for infinity that resembles an eight on its side. University ofPennsylvania[edit] At UPenn, secret societies are smaller than their Greekcounterparts, and tend to vary in degree of secrecy.[83][84] There are threesenior honorary societies. The Sphinx Senior Society and the Friars SeniorSociety were both founded at the turn of the 20th century, while The MortarBoard Senior Society was founded in 1922. None of these societies was intendedto be secret, in that their undergraduate and alumni membership were andcontinue to be publicly known, they share many of the characteristics ofundergraduate secret societies of the time; they tap a diverse group of campusleaders to become members during their senior year, organize social and serviceactivities throughout the year, and maintain an extensive network of successfuland notable alumni. Alumni of Friars, for example, include Harold Ford Jr. andEd Rendell; the Sphinx alumni roster boasts Richard A. Clarke and John Legend.In addition, there are several other groups called "secret societies". Thesegroups generally denote a social club that is independent of any officialorganization. For this reason, the society is not regulated by the universityand is not accountable to a national organization. University of SouthernCalifornia[edit] The University of Southern California is home to the Skull andDagger Society.[85] Founded in 1913, Skull and Dagger is USC's oldest honorsociety.[86] The Society inducts Trojans who have demonstrated extraordinaryleadership on campus or who have brought fame and notoriety to the University.In the early 20th century, the Society published its members names andaccomplishments, however in recent years has kept its members' identitiessecret. Members often include student body presidents, Daily Trojan editors inchief, All-American athletes, football team captains and inter-fraternitycouncil presidents.[87] Little is known about the rituals and practices of thesociety aside from once a year when the society pranks the school, drops abanner from the Student Union Building, and runs through campus wearing odd hatsand tailcoats.[88] Recently,[when?] the society has been criticized for itsannual prank practice, with opponents saying the pranks "damage thetrustworthiness and credibility of respected campus services".[89] Althoughoriginally an all-male society, Skull and Dagger now admits women. Skull andDagger has been known to make gifts to the University. In 1994, the Societydonated "The Wall of Scholars" to honor students who have won national andinternational fellowships, as well as recipients of USC awards.[90] In 2011, theSociety embarked to restore the University's class marker tradition and has beendonating class markers ever since.[91] Skull and Dagger has additionally endowedtwo scholarships, which are awarded annually to students "who have demonstratedsignificant campus and/or community leadership".[86] University of Texas[edit]The University of Texas at Austin is home to the Friar Society. The FriarSociety was founded in 1911 by Curtice Rosser and Marion Levy. Eight memberswere initially selected in the charter group. Originally, four men were chosenfrom the junior and senior classes every year on the basis of a significantcontribution to The University of Texas. The Friar Society recognizes studentswho have made a significant contribution to The University of Texas. In 1936,the Friars decided to start taking larger classes to accommodate the growingsize of the university. Women were first admitted to the Friar Society on March25, 1973. In 1982, the Friars decided to create a teaching fellowship in honorof the upcoming centennial celebration for The University of Texas. Friar alumniraised $100,000 for this purpose, and this amount was matched by the Board ofRegents to create an endowment. The Friar Centennial Teaching Fellowship is anannual award given to a UT professor who has demonstrated excellence at theundergraduate teaching level. With a prize of $25,000, the award is the largestmonetary award annually given to a UT professor. The University of Texas atAustin is also home to the Tejas Club, an all-male secret society founded in1925 that is one of the oldest student organizations on the campus. The threepillars of Tejas are scholarship, leadership, and friendship, representing adesire to attract and mold male student leaders on campus. Prominent members ofthe Tejas Club include former U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, CarMaxfounder Austin Ligon, and numerous Austin-area leaders. The membership processis secretive and closed to the public. University of South Carolina[edit] TheClariosophic Society, also known as ΜΣΦ (Mu Sigma Phi), is a literary societyfounded in 1806 at the University of South Carolina, then known as SouthCarolina College, as a result of the splitting in two of the PhilomathicSociety, which had been formed within weeks of the opening of the college in1805 and included virtually all students. At what was called the SynapianConvention held in February, 1806, the members of Philomathic voted to splitinto two separate societies, one of which became known as Clariosophic, whilethe other society became known as Euphradian. Two blood brothers picked themembers for the new groups in a manner similar to choosing up sides for animpromptu baseball game. John Goodwin became the first president ofClariosophic. Other early presidents include Stephen Elliott, Hugh S. Legaré.George McDuffie and Richard I. Manning. The Society was reactivated in 2013 andbecame co-ed. The membership process and society roster are secretive and closedto the public. Individuals in the Clariosophic Society can be identified by akey insignia on their diploma. University of Virginia[edit] Main article: Secretsocieties at the University of Virginia North Steps of the Rotunda, with ZSociety logo Secret societies have been a part of University of Virginia studentlife since the founding of the Eli Banana society in 1878.[92] Early secretsocieties, such as Eli Banana and T.I.L.K.A., had secret initiations but publicmembership; some, such as the Hot Feet, now the IMP Society, were very public,incurring the wrath of the administration for public reveals.[93] The firsttruly "secret society" was the Seven Society, founded circa 1905.[94] Twodecades before, there had been a chapter of the Mystical 7 society at Virginia,which may have been an inspiration. Nothing is known about the Seven Societyexcept for their philanthropy to the University; members are revealed at theirdeath. A few other societies that flourished around the turn of the 20thcentury, such as the Z Society (formerly Zeta), who were founded in 1892,[95]the IMP Society, reformulated in 1913 after the Hot Feet were banned in 1908,and Eli Banana, are still active at the University today. The Thirteen Societywas founded February 13, 1889. After an unknown period of inactivity theyreemerged in 2004. Currently The Thirteen Society operates as a mainly honorarysociety for those who demonstrate "unselfish service to the University andexcellence in their respective fields of activity".[96] New societies haveperiodically appeared at the University during the 20th century. The mostnotable are the P.U.M.P.K.I.N. Society, a secret group that rewardscontributions to the University and which was founded prior to 1970;[97][98] andthe Society of the Purple Shadows, founded 1963, who are only seen in public inpurple robes and hoods and who seek to "safeguard vigilantly the Universitytraditions".[99][100] The A.N.G.E.L.S. Society started sometime in the late1900s is known to place white roses and letters on doors of those mourning,needing encouragement, or showing "kind behavior" to others. They are known topromote a stronger community of kindness throughout the University, completingmany acts of service for students and faculty. Many of the secret societieslisted contribute to the University either financially or through awards or someother form of recognition of excellence at the University. Virginia MilitaryInstitute[edit] The military academies have often been hostile to fraternitiesand secret societies. Final admission to the VMI cadet corps is contingent onthree factors: 1.) A cadet agrees to abide by the Honor Code. 2.) A cadet willnot marry while a member of the Corps in pursuit of a degree. 3.) A cadet willnever join any secret society. Should a cadet found to be in violation of any ofthose three, he is to be drummed out of the VMI cadet corps. Washington and LeeUniversity[edit] Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia is knownfor two secret societies, the Sigma Society and the Cadaver Society. Founded in1880, the Sigma Society is one of Washington and Lee's "oldest, continuoussocial organizations".[101][102][103] While membership information is notnecessarily anonymous, the group's purpose and inner workings remain a secret.The group has long had a connection to President George Washington, though theextent of that relationship is unknown to the public at large.[102][104]Similarly, the acronym P.A.M.O.L.A. R.Y.E. - which can seen inscribed onbuildings and in classrooms throughout the Lexington area - also bears anunknown significance to the group. The group has largely gone underground sinceundergoing a public spat with the University in 1994 when University officialspaid the Sigmas $15,000 after it tore down the Sigma cabin. As noted by ChiefJustice William Rehnquist, Associate Justice to the Supreme Court Lewis Powell,Jr. is one of the group's most prominent members.[105] The membership andorganizational structure of the Cadaver Society are largely unknown. Cadaver hasbeen in continuous operation since its founding in 1957. The Cadavers have abridge that bears their name, connecting the main campus to Wilson Field, aswell as their symbol in many prominent places throughout the campus. The societyhas been criticized for their secrecy and many of their activities which includerunning around dressed in all black and masks late at night as well as drawingtheir symbol all over campus.[106] They have been known to run through theSorority houses, talking in high voices and attempting to wake everyone in thehouses up. Washington University in St. Louis[edit] There are three known secretsocieties (known on campus as Honoraries because of the public nature of theirmembers and purposes within the community) currently operating at WashingtonUniversity in St. Louis: ThurtenE, Lock & Chain, and Chimes. ThurtenE wasformed in 1904 as a secret society of junior men chosen for their leadership,character, and participation in campus activities. Not much is known about thefounding of the group or its selection process from early years other than thefact that only the members themselves knew who belonged to ThurtenE andmembership varied from 4 to 14, before finally settling on a consistent 13.Members made themselves known at the end of their senior year during graduationby wearing a small skull pin and having a number “13” listed next to their namesin Washington University's yearbook "The Hatchet". In recent years, the 13 newmembers are revealed when pieces of paper listing the names and the honorary'ssymbol are posted around campus. ThurtenE found its purpose in 1935 when it wasapproached by the Chancellor to rescue the floundering student circus from thesenior honorary, which had merged with another group.[107] Since 1935, Thurtenehas held the Thurtene Carnival, which is the largest and oldest student-runCarnival in the nation. The society has been co-ed since 1991.[108][109] Lock& Chain was created in 1904 by six sophomore men. Since then, the honoraryhas expanded to 15 members from all different backgrounds, but it still standsby its founding principles—leadership, service, and tradition. Students arechosen during the Spring from the freshman class based on academic merit,extracurricular involvement, leadership capabilities and roles, and personalqualities through a highly selective application and interview process. Newmembers can be seen spotted around campus wearing chains across their chests.Lock & Chain is an active honorary, sponsoring various events throughout theyear. Lock & Chain is also dedicated to community engagement andphilanthropic programming.[110] Chimes, founded in 1948 as a junior women'shonorary, is a group of juniors who share common values of scholarship,leadership, and service. Each class works together for one year on programmingfor Wash U's campus, the internal Chapter, and the chosen partner philanthropy,with the freedom to follow their own path for the year. Each member has a nameassigned to them that represents an aspect of what they bring to the Honorary(such as intrepidity or flair). Washington University's Chapter of Chimes JuniorHonorary was founded in 1948, and has contributed to campus life at WashingtonUniversity for over half a century. Their main campus program is Chimes Week, aChimes tradition that explores a particular theme. Like ThurtenE, Chimes hasbeen a co-ed society since 1991.[111][112] Yale University[edit] Main article:List of Yale University student organizations The term "secret society" at YaleUniversity encompasses organizations with many shared but not identicalcharacteristics. The oldest surviving undergraduate secret societies at Yaleparallel various 19th-century fraternal organizations. In the traditional Yalesystem societies were organized by class year.[113] There were two, (thenthree), senior societies, three junior societies, two sophomore societies, andtwo freshman societies. All the societies were independent, all had their owntraditions, and each class-year pair or trio shared common traits appropriate totheir class year; the freshmen societies were rambunctious and owned little realproperty, the sophomore and junior ones were progressively more elaborate, (thesophomore ones regularly maintained live theater in their halls), and the seniorones were extremely small and elite, and with quite expensive property andcelebrations. Each of the societies had a link to a society in the class yearbefore it and after it; that is, members of one freshman society would all getelected to the same sophomore society year after year, and so on, so that therewere two or three parallel sets of linked societies. From time to time, therewould be a coup, and one society would break the pattern, forcing the othersocieties to likewise change election strategies, or cause the creation of a newsociety. Delta Kappa Epsilon, a junior society, was created in reaction to abotched election process to the junior class societies in 1844. This processheld from the 1840s to the 1910s. This system kept Yale out of the more typicalintercollegiate college fraternity system, although some regular collegefraternities were created out of the Yale system. Yale-type class societies alsoextended across northeastern colleges. Society Years present Year[114] LinonianSociety 1753–1872, 1945–present Senior & Graduate Brothers in Unity1768–Present (Rumored) Four-Year Calliopean Society 1819-1853, 1950s–presentSenior Skull & Bones 1833–present Senior Scroll & Key 1841–presentSenior Berzelius 1848–present Senior Book and Snake 1863–present Senior Spadeand Grave[115] 1864–present Senior St. Anthony Hall 1868–present Three-YearWolf's Head 1883–present Senior The Pundits 1884–present Senior St. Elmo1889–present Senior YSECS 1900s–present Four-Year Elihu 1903–present Senior Mythand Sword 1908–1965, 1990s–present Senior Aurelian Honor Society 1910–presentSenior Torch Honor Society 1916–1960s, 1990s-present Senior Nathan Hale1947–present Senior Manuscript Society 1952–present Senior Mace and Chain1956-1960s, 1990s-present Senior Shabtai 1996–present Senior & Graduate Thissystem has not survived the introduction of regular fraternities and otherchanges. The senior class societies continue to prosper today without any of thelower class societies. A similar system was introduced at Wesleyan University innearby Middletown, Connecticut, but with a pair of societies in each class yearand dual memberships between class societies and college fraternities, so thatmost class society members were also fraternity members. The older societiessurvived because of their endowments, real estate, and the vigor of theirrespective alumni organizations and their charitable Trusts.[116][117] In thepast century, the size of Yale has allowed for a wider variety of studentsocieties, including regular college fraternity chapters, and other models, sothat it can be difficult to categorize the organizations. And there aresocieties like Sage and Chalice and St. Anthony Hall which cross ordinarycategories. There are typical attributes of the Yale societies. They are oftenrestricted by class year, especially the senior class. They usually have fifteenmembers per class year. They "tap" their members, mostly on the same "TapNight", and a member is off-limits to recruitment by another secret society,(i.e. reciprocal exclusivity). The normal pattern now is that a group of secretsocieties places an advertisement in the Yale Daily News in early spring thatinforms students when Tap Night is taking place and when students should expectto receive formal offers (usually one week before official Tap Night). Tap Nightis typically held on a Thursday in mid April; the most recently held Tap Nightwas April 10, 2014. During 1854–1956, "'Sheff'", the Sheffield Scientific Schoolwas the sciences and engineering college of Yale University, and it also had afraternal culture that differed in some respects from the humanitiescampus.[118] Skull and Bones "tomb" at Yale University Many societies have ownedmeeting halls, with different accommodations. Following the example of Skull& Bones, the halls are often referred to as 'tombs'. A series of articles onDartmouth and Yale secret-society architecture provides an overview of thebuildings.[119] Societies that own tombs or halls are sometimes known as'landed' societies. The three oldest landed societies are Skull and Bones(1832), Scroll and Key, (1841) and Wolf's Head, (1883). The surviving landedSheffield societies are Berzelius (1848) and Book and Snake (1863), St. Elmo(1889), and the Aurelian Honor Society (1910). St. Anthony Hall (1867) callsitself a "final society".[120] Three newer societies that own property includeElihu (1903) – whose building is the oldest of the senior society buildings atYale – Manuscript Society (1952), and Mace and Chain (1956). Yale's Buildingsand Grounds Department lists the societies with halls in its onlinearchitectural database.[121] There may be any number of unknown or undergroundsecret societies at Yale. Any group of students may self-constitute themselvesas a society at any time. Certainly there have been many which did not last longenough to leave any significant records. Indeed, the Yale Rumpus has in recentyears published names of students it believes are in various secretsocieties.[122] According to the Rumpus, numerous other societies (such as TheApostles, Cup and Crown, OCTA,[123] Phoenix ("Cage and Feather"), Nathan Hale,WIPS, L&C, Looking Glass, Spade and Grave, Boar and Rampant, Ox, ISO, Truthand Courage, Linonia, Llama and Cardigan, Red Mask, Crab and Bell, Ceres Athena,Gryphon, Fork and Knife, Ink and Needle, etc.) are either active or have beenactive recently. They typically meet in off-campus apartments, fraternity commonrooms, classrooms, and other available spaces. Some groups have enough resourcesto rent a permanent meeting space. Given the extracurricular zeal andcompetition for society spots evident in the Yale student body culture, adefinitive list of secret societies that exist on the campus (or on any campus)can change year by year. List of notable North American collegiate secretsocieties[edit] Name Institution Year Location Member limit NoZe BrotherhoodBaylor University 1924 Texas N/A The Dragon Society[124] Binghamton University1950 New York Upperclassmen Societas Domi Pacificae Brown University 1824 RhodeIsland Seniors Seven Society, Order of the Crown & Dagger College of Williamand Mary 1905 Virginia Senior men Sigma Phi Society Union College 1827 New YorkN/A F.H.C. Society College of William and Mary 1750 Virginia UpperclassmenBishop James Madison Society College of William and Mary 1812 Virginia N/A WrenSociety College of William and Mary 1832 Virginia N/A Sphinx Head CornellUniversity 1890 New York Senior Quill and Dagger Cornell University 1893 NewYork Senior Sphinx[125] Dartmouth College 1886 New Hampshire Senior men Casqueand Gauntlet[125][126] Dartmouth College 1887 New Hampshire Senior Tyger[125]Dartmouth College 1892 New Hampshire Senior Men Phrygian[125] Dartmouth College1898 New Hampshire Senior Dragon Society[125] Dartmouth College 1898 NewHampshire Senior men Fire and Skoal[125] Dartmouth College 1975 New HampshireSenior Abaris[125] Dartmouth College 1898 New Hampshire Senior Phoenix[125]Dartmouth College 1992 New Hampshire Senior women Gryphon[125] Dartmouth College1960 New Hampshire Senior Cobra[125] Dartmouth College 1979 New Hampshire Seniorwomen Raven's Claw Society Dickinson College 1896 Pennsylvania Senior men TheOrder of Ammon Emory University 2005 Georgia (U.S. state) Juniors and SeniorsPaladin Society Emory University 1998 Georgia (U.S. state) Juniors and SeniorsThe Quaternion Club[127] Furman University 1903 South Carolina "Four Junior andFour Senior Men" Order of the Torch Florida International University 2003Florida N/A Burning Spear Society Florida State University 1993 Florida SeniorThe Stewards[128][129][130] Georgetown University 1823 District of Columbia NotFreshmen Anak Society Georgia Institute of Technology 1908 Georgia (U.S. state)Junior and Senior A.D. Club Harvard University 1836 Massachusetts All maleDelphic Club Harvard University 1898 Massachusetts All male Fly Club HarvardUniversity 1836 Massachusetts All male Owl Club Harvard University 1896Massachusetts All male Phoenix S.K. Club Harvard University 1902 MassachusettsAll male Porcellian Club Harvard University 1791 Massachusetts All malePithotomy Club[131] Johns Hopkins University 1896 Maryland Men CHI LongwoodUniversity 1900 Virginia Coeducational Princeps Longwood University 1992Virginia Coeducational Philomathean Society New York University (NYU) 1832 NewYork All male Eucleian Society New York University (NYU) 1832 New York All maleRed Dragon Society New York University (NYU) 1898 New York Senior coeducationalKnights of the Lamp New York University (NYU) 1914 New York Senior BusinessSchool Andiron Club New York University (NYU) 1907 New York All male MuftiPomona College 1940 California N/A Iron Key[132] Purdue University 1910 IndianaSenior Cap and Skull Rutgers University 1900 New Jersey Senior Medusa[133]Trinity College 1892 Connecticut N/A Myskania[134] University at Albany 1917 NewYork N/A The Machine University of Alabama 1914 Alabama Fraternity &sorority leaders Jasons Senior Men's Honorary[135] University of Alabama 1914Alabama Senior Thoth[136] University of British Columbia 1926 British ColumbiaN/A Order of the Golden Bear[137] University of California, Berkeley 1900California Senior Sigma Phi Society of the Thorsen House University ofCalifornia, Berkeley 1912 California Men Skull and Keys University ofCalifornia, Berkeley 1892 California Men's Society Torch & ShieldSociety[138][139] University of California, Berkeley 1908 California Seniorwomen Society of the Golden Rose[140] University of California, Berkeley 1942California Junior and Senior women Gun Club[141] University of California,Berkeley 1912 California Law School Sigma Sigma[142] University of Cincinnati1898 Ohio Upperclassmen men Cincinnatus Honorary Society[143] University ofCincinnati 1917 Ohio Coeducational Men of Metro[144] University of Cincinnati1946 Ohio Men CWEST[145] University of Cincinnati 1979 Ohio Women Sigma Phi[146]University of Cincinnati 1996 Ohio Women Order of the Greek Horsemen Universityof Georgia 1955 Georgia (U.S. state) Fraternity men Gridiron Secret SocietyUniversity of Georgia 1978 Georgia (U.S. state) N/A Ma-Wan-Da[147] University ofIllinois at Urbana–Champaign 1912 Illinois Senior The Senior Skull HonorSociety[148] University of Maine 1906 Maine Senior Men Iron Arrow University ofMiami 1926 Florida N/A Order of Angell University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 1902Michigan Senior QEBH University of Missouri 1897 Missouri Senior LSVSociety[149] University of Missouri 1907 Missouri Senior women Mystical SevenUniversity of Missouri 1907 Missouri Senior Society of Innocents University ofNebraska 1903 Nebraska Senior OBC University of North Carolina at Asheville 1960North Carolina N/A Order of Gimghoul University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill1889 North Carolina Senior Order of the Golden Fleece[150][151] University ofNorth Carolina at Chapel Hill 1904 North Carolina Senior Order of theGrail-Valkyries[152] University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 1920 NorthCarolina Senior Loyal Knights of Old Trusty[153] University of Oklahoma 1920Oklahoma Engineering students Bisonhead[154] University at Buffalo, The StateUniversity of New York 1923 New York Senior Friars[155] University ofPennsylvania 1899 Pennsylvania Senior Sphinx Senior Society[156] University ofPennsylvania 1900 Pennsylvania Senior Mortar Board[157] University ofPennsylvania 1922 Pennsylvania Senior Lion's Paw The Pennsylvania StateUniversity 1908 Pennsylvania Senior Skull and Bones The Pennsylvania StateUniversity 1912 Pennsylvania Senior Parmi Nous The Pennsylvania State University1907 Pennsylvania Senior Society of Cwens University of Pittsburgh 1922Pennsylvania N/A Order of the Druids[158] University of Pittsburgh 1916Pennsylvania N/A Scarabbean Senior Society[159] University of Tennessee 1915Tennessee N/A Friar Society University of Texas at Austin 1911 TexasUpperclassmen & Graduate Tejas Club University of Texas at Austin 1925 TexasN/A Episkopon University of Trinity College 1858 Ontario N/A Eli BananaUniversity of Virginia 1878 Virginia N/A T.I.L.K.A. University of Virginia 1889Virginia N/A Z Society University of Virginia 1892 Virginia N/A IMP SocietyUniversity of Virginia 1902 Virginia N/A Seven Society University of Virginia1905 Virginia N/A Society of the Purple Shadows University of Virginia 1963Virginia N/A P.U.M.P.K.I.N. Society University of Virginia 1967 Virginia N/A TheThirteen Society University of Virginia 1889 Virginia N/A Iron CrossSociety[160] University of Wisconsin–Madison 1902 Wisconsin Junior and SeniorCadaver Society Washington and Lee University 1957 Virginia N/A Sigma SocietyWashington and Lee University 1880 Virginia N/A Thurtene Washington Universityin St. Louis 1904 Missouri 13 Juniors Mystical 7 Wesleyan University 1867Connecticut Senior Theta Nu Epsilon Wesleyan University 1870 ConnecticutSophomore Skulls of Seven[161] Westminster College 1898 Missouri SeniorSkull[162][163] Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1911 Massachusetts Senior Skulland Bones Yale University 1832 Connecticut Senior Scroll and Key Yale University1842 Connecticut Senior Berzelius Yale University 1848 Connecticut SeniorLinonian Society Yale University 1753 Connecticut Senior & Graduate Book andSnake Yale University 1863 Connecticut Senior Brothers in Unity Yale University1768 Connecticut Four Year Wolf's Head Yale University 1883 Connecticut SeniorSt. Elmo Yale University 1899 Connecticut Senior L&C Yale University ?Connecticut Senior Elihu Yale University 1903 Connecticut Senior Aurelian HonorSociety Yale University 1910 Connecticut Senior Torch Honor Society YaleUniversity 1916 Connecticut Senior Desmos Yale University 1951 ConnecticutSenior Manuscript Society Yale University 1952 Connecticut Senior Mace and ChainYale University 1956 Connecticut Senior Myth and Sword Yale University 1903Connecticut Senior Burning Spear Society Florida State University 1993 FloridaN/A See also[edit] • High school secret societies • International Debutante Ball• Secret societies References[edit] 1. ^ Jump up to:a b Bagg, Lyman Hotchkiss(1871). Four Years at Yale. New Haven: Charles C. Chatfield & Co. pp.87–105. 2. ^ Yale Herald article Archived May 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.Retrieved 2008-06-01. 3. ^ Flat Hat Club. 4. ^ William Raimond Baird (1905).Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. A descriptive analysis of thefraternity system in the Colleges of United States, with a detailed account ofeach fraternity. The Alcolm Company. p. 426. 5. ^ Wm. Raimond Baird (1905).Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. A descriptive analysis of thefraternity system in the Colleges of United States, with a detailed account ofeach fraternity. The Alcolm Company. p. 428. 6. ^ Jump up to:a b Wm. RaimondBaird (1905). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. A descriptiveanalysis of the fraternity system in the Colleges of United States, with adetailed account of each fraternity. The Alcolm Company. p. 429. 7. ^ Jump upto:a b c d "Spring Scene 2013". Archived from the original on 2016-03-19.Retrieved 2014-08-26. 8. ^ Jump up to:a b c Milfeld, Becca (2004-11-04). "Shhh!The Secret Side to the College's Lesser Known Societies". Archived from theoriginal on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 9. ^ "F.H.C. Society", UniversityArchives Subject File Collection ArchivedJanuary 15, 2009, at the WaybackMachine, Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library, Collegeof William and Mary 10. ^ Hastings, William T. (1965). Phi Beta Kappa as aSecret Society with its Relations to Freemasonry and Antimasonry SomeSupplementary Documents. Richmond, Virginia: United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa.pp. 38–39. 11. ^ Flat Hat Club 12. ^ "Phi Beta Kappa: The First Fraternity".Sigma Chi/Brief History of Fraternities. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 13. ^ "Phi BetaKappa Society – History". Phi Beta Kappa homepage. Retrieved 2008-07-09.[deadlink] 14. ^ "Letters" (PDF). The Key Reporter. 69 (4): 13. Retrieved2008-07-09.[dead link] 15. ^ Johnson, Chase (2008-04-08). "Peeking Into ClosedSocieties". The Flat Hat. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. 16. ^ "TheSecret Life of A.D. White". The Cornell Daily Sun. 2007-02-28. Archived from theoriginal on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 17. ^ Bishop, Morris (1962). AHistory of Cornell. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 343. 18. ^ "DearUncle Ezra". 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 19. ^ "Senior Societies".Trustees of Dartmouth College. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 20. ^ Scott Meacham (1999)."Halls, Tombs, and Houses: Student Society Architecture at Dartmouth". Retrieved2008-05-10. 21. ^ Secret societies at the College include Dragon Society, Sphinx(senior society) and Fire and Skoal. Gomstyn, Alice (2001-05-18). "Secretsocieties remain veiled in mystery". The Dartmouth. Retrieved2007-02-14.[permanent dead link] 22. ^ Jump up to:a b "Dickinson College Officeof Communications". Dickinson College. Archived from the original on 2010-12-26.Retrieved 2011-02-28. 23. ^ "The Order of Scroll and Key". Dickinson College.Retrieved 2011-02-28. 24. ^ "Duke Magazine | Duke". Archived from the originalon 2016-05-04. Retrieved 2016-08-28. 25. ^ "PQDT Open". Archived from theoriginal on 2016-09-15. Retrieved 2016-09-06. 26. ^ "November 2007". Archivedfrom the original on 2016-09-20. Retrieved 2016-08-28. 27. ^ "Trasked withsecrecy". Archived from the original on 2016-12-17. Retrieved 2016-08-28. 28. ^"History". 2009-12-07. 29. ^ orempty |title= (help) 30. ^ ^ Jump up to:a b "Order of the Hippo's not-so-secret secrets unveiled". TheGW Hatchet. 2001-02-08. Retrieved 2017-02-19. 32. ^ "Greek Life". GeorgetownUniversity Student Association. Retrieved 2020-06-22. 33. ^ "After 100 Years,Still Professing a Will to Serve". The Washington Post. 2003-05-19. Archivedfrom the original on 2014-09-21. Retrieved 2012-11-08. 34. ^ "Honoring DonCasper - The Hoya". 2012-11-15. Retrieved 2020-06-23. 35. ^George, Eric M. (1988). The Fight For Independence. Georgetown's Blue &Gray. 36. ^ "Other Fraternities". Retrieved 2020-06-23.37. ^ "Stewards Uncovered, Will Dissolve". The Voice. 1988-02-08. Retrieved2012-11-08. 38. ^ "Alumni Donation". Washington City Paper. 1999-03-05.Retrieved 2012-11-08. 39. ^ Shapira, Ian (2013-03-14). "Secret society is againat center of an uproar on Georgetown U. campus". Washington Post. ISSN0190-8286. Retrieved 2020-06-23. 40. ^ Hinchliffe, Emma; McDonald, Braden (22February 2013). "Secret Societies Jolt End of GUSA Race". The Hoya. Retrieved 7February 2015. 41. ^ Hinchliffe, Emma (20 February 2013). "One Day Later,Stewards Respond". The Hoya. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 42. ^ Hinchliffe, Emma(20 February 2013). "Ramadan 'Comes Clean' After Denying Secret SocietyMembership". The Hoya. Retrieved 7 February2015. 43. ^ "Board Stands byAppelbaum and Cleary". 2013-02-20. Retrieved 2020-06-23. 44. ^ Gregory, Matt (21February 2014). "4 Candidates Secret Society Members". The Hoya. Retrieved 7February 2015. 45. ^ "VIEWPOINT: Speaking for the Second Stewards Society".2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-06-22. 46. ^ "The ANAK Society". The ANAK Society.Archived from the originalon 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 47. ^ Edwards,Pat (1997-04-18). "Ramblins". The Technique. Georgia Institute of Technology.Retrieved 2007-12-21. 48. ^ "JMU Secret Society IN8 Recognizes AltruisticStudents". 2017-11-08. 49. ^ The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2009: Studentson Campus Tell You What You Really Want to Know, 35th Edition. 2008-06-24. ISBN9780312366919. 50. ^ "Guide to the Records of the Andiron Club of New York CityMC 19". Retrieved 2020-04-10. 51. ^ "Special Collections Center |New York University Division of Libraries". Retrieved2020-04-11. 52. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-31.Retrieved 2010-03-02. 53. ^[permanent deadlink] 54. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-02. Retrieved2010-03-02. 55. ^ Tully, Jessica (29 April 2011). "Student leaders raisequestions over secret societies' reach". The Daily Collegian. Archived from theoriginal on 2 May 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 56. ^ "Honor SocietiesSelect Only Outstanding Students". The Daily Collegian. 20 September 1964. 57. ^This is Penn State: An Insider's Guide to the University Park Campus. UniversityPark, PA: Penn State Press. 2006. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-271-02720-3. 58. ^ Kay,Leslie (30 April 1965). "Top Penn Staters Honored By University Hat Societies".The Daily Collegian. 59. ^ "Men's Hat Groups Initiate 150 Yearly". The DailyCollegian. 11 September 1955. 60. ^ Bronstein, Ben. "About Lion's Paw: MountNittany". Lion's Paw Alumni Association. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 61. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-09-09. Retrieved 2015-11-11.62. ^ 63. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on2012-06-14. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 64. ^ Kate S. Carroll (2006-10-16). "TheCannon War". Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on 2012-02-07.Retrieved July 8, 2013. 65. ^ Stefanie Becker (2013-03-18). "4 secret societiesyou probably don't know about". The Week. Retrieved July 8, 2013. 66. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-21. Retrieved 2010-01-10.67. ^ "Fight on Class Societies – Rutgers Follows Princeton's Lead Against ClubSystem". The New York Times. 1917-01-20. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 68. ^ "SecretSocieties of the University of Chicago". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 8 May2017. 69. ^ "To The Members of the University of Chicago". The University ofChicago Magazine. 5 (9): 298. July 1913. 70. ^ Makos, Jeff (Dec 7, 1995). "WHPK:Still spinnin' after all these years". The University of Chicago Chronicle. 15(7). Retrieved 5 May 2017. 71. ^ "Justice John Paul Stevens, AB'41, announcesretirement from Supreme Court". UChicago News. The University of Chicago.Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2017. 72. ^ GreekLife Forms & Policies Archived February 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine 73.^ "Michigamua Image Gallery". Retrieved 2008-05-09. 74. ^ "Michigamua Exposed".Retrieved 2008-05-09. 75. ^ "Maneater | Secret societies reveal new members onTap Day". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2013-08-21. 76. ^[permanentdead link] 77. ^ West, Elliot (2006-10-31). "Halloween: Secret Society In ChapelHill Owns Gimghoul Castle". Raleigh Chronicle. Archived from the original on2008-05-19. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 78. ^ "Gimghoul Castle". Archived from theoriginal on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 79. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Inventoryof the Order of Gimghoul Records, 1832-2006 (bulk 1940-1997)". University ofNorth Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 80. ^ "The Legendof Gimghoul". Ghost Stories of North Carolina. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 81. ^"Secret society donates to Eve Carson Scholarship". The Daily Tar Heel.Retrieved October 3, 2011. 82. ^ "Secret society donates to Student EnrichmentFund". Retrieved 2012-04-24. 83. ^ Oppenheim, Gabe (2006-08-11). "The Jekyll andHyde of ZBT". The Daily Pennsylvanian. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17.Retrieved 2008-05-10. 84. ^ Ghiselli, Margherita (2003-01-14). "Mystique ofsecret societies no secret among college students". The Daily Pennsylvanian.Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 85. ^ Starr,Kevin (2002). Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940-1950. NewYork: Oxford University Press. p. 330. ISBN 9780195168976. 86. ^ Jump up to:ab[permanentdead link] 87. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-29.Retrieved 2015-04-13. 88. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on2016-03-15. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 89. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from theoriginal on 2016-05-15. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 90. ^ "Archived copy". Archivedfrom the original on 2015-04-04. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 91. ^ "Archived copy".Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 92. ^ Bruce,Philip Alexander (1921). History of the University of Virginia: The LengtheningShadow of One Man. IV. New York: Macmillan. pp. 97–99, 338. 93. ^ Bruce, PhilipAlexander (1922). History of the University of Virginia: The Lengthening Shadowof One Man. V. New York: Macmillan. p. 283. 94. ^ Dabney, Virginius (1981). Mr.Jefferson's University: A History. Charlottesville: University of VirginiaPress. pp. 305–306. ISBN 978-0-8139-0904-2.[permanent dead link] 95. ^ Bruce,IV:100. 96. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-20.Retrieved 2016-03-01. 97. ^ "P.U.M.P.K.I.N.'s To Make Yearly Roll". CavalierDaily. 1970-10-30. Archived from the original on 2008-05-19. 98. ^ Dabney, 502.99. ^ Dabney, 501. 100. ^ Steer, Jay (1968-09-11). "Noted For Eccentricity,Mysteriousness: Societies Beneficial to University". Cavalier Daily. Archivedfrom the original on 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 101. ^ Sigma plaquelocated outside of the Science Library, Washington and Lee University,Lexington, Virginia 102. ^ Jump up to:a b "History of W&L Secret Clubs",Ring-tum Phi, 4 October 1966, p.2. 103. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from theoriginal on 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 104. ^ "Sigma InitiationWashington's Birthday", Ring-tum Phi, 2 March 1910, p. 4. 105. ^ Powell'sinclusion in the Sigma Society is acknowledged by Chief Justice WilliamRehnquist: Rehnquist, William H "A tribute to Lewis F. Powell, Jr." Washingtonand Lee Law Review. 01 Feb, 2011.[permanentdead link]. 106.^[permanentdead link] 107. ^ "Resources on WashU's Original Secret Society: Thurtene". APeople's History of Washington UNIVERSItY. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 108. ^"Challenging an institution". Student Life. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 109. ^"ThurtenE Carnival". ThurtenE. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 110. ^ "lockandchain".lockandchain. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 111. ^ "Chimes Junior Honorary" Retrieved 2017-05-13. 112. ^ "Challenging an institution".Student Life. Retrieved 2017-05-13. 113. ^ "Four Years at Yale", Lyman HotchkissBagg, '69, (New Haven, Conn.: Charles Chatfield & Co.), 1871, pgs. 87–105.114. ^ "In Focus | Yale University Library" (PDF). 115. ^ "Morehouse TrustDinner". 2013-04-13. 116. ^ "Tombs and Taps: An inside look at Yale'sFraternities, Sororities and Societies". Light & Truth: The Yale Journal ofOpinion and Investigative Reporting. 8 (1). 2001. Archived from the original on2002-03-06. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 117. ^ Francis-Wright, Tim (2001). "These areCharities? The Seamy Side of Yale's Most Exclusive Clubs". Bear Left!. 1.Retrieved 2008-05-09. 118. ^ Branch, Mark Alden (March 2001). "Yale's LostLandmarks". Yale Alumni Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-02-27. 119.^ Branch, Mark Alden (2001). "Yale's Lost Landmarks: Delta Kappa Epsilon "Tomb",1861-1927". Yale Alumni Magazine. Archived from the originalon 2008-04-20.Retrieved 2008-05-09. 120. ^ "An Irrepressible Urge to Join". Yale AlumniMagazine. March 2001. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. 121. ^"Buildings and Grounds". Yale University Office of Facilities. Archived from theoriginal on May 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 122. ^ "Yale Rumpus". 123. ^ TheYale Herald: "Tapping In" Archived 2014-03-05 at the Wayback Machine March 30,2012 124. ^ Hammond, Karen T. (Feb 1996). "Harpur College: Setting theStandard". From Vision to Excellence: A Popular History of BinghamtonUniversity. Virginia Beach, VA: The Donning Company/Publishers. p. 55. ISBN978-0898659603. 125. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Dartmouth list of seniorsocieties. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 126. ^ Good, Jonathan (April 2000). ""KingArthur made new knights": The Founding of Casque & Gauntlet". DartmouthLibrary Bulletin. 127. ^ "Quaternion Club Members". 128. ^"Secret Society of the Stewards, The Georgetown Academy". Scribd. Retrieved2020-06-23. 129. ^ "Honoring Don Casper - The Hoya". Retrieved 2020-06-23. 130. ^ "VIEWPOINT: Speaking for the SecondStewards Society". 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-06-23. 131. ^ "Johns HopkinsMagazine". 132. ^ "About Iron Key". The Order of Iron Key. Retrieved June 21,2019. 133. ^ [Knapp, Peter J., and Anne H. Knapp. "A Century in Retrospect". InTrinity College in the Twentieth Century: A History. Hartford, Conn.: TrinityCollege, 2000. 46.]. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 134. ^ Myskania Records, 1989.Retrieved 2015-05-20. 135. ^ The Tides of Tradition: Culture and Reform at theUniversity of Alabama (PDF). Alabama Univ., Birmingham. 2003. p. 18. 136. ^Reminiscences of a Well-Rounded Man, 1926-31: Malcolm F. McGregorArchived2012-04-30 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2012-11-27. 137. ^ Frost,Jacqueline (Summer 1999). "Order of the Golden Bear". Berkeley Magazine. 138. ^"Torch and Shield New Coed Society: University Women Form Club Rivaling GoldenBear of Men Students". San Francisco Call. Feb 23, 1908. 139. ^ Women at Cal, AClass of Their Own: The Bancroft Library (last updated October 19, 2011) 140. ^Brownstein, Sandra. "Revival of the 'Society of the Golden Rose'?". 141. ^Peter, Kessler (2005). "Eris Quod Sum, Ergo Bibamus". Boalt Hall Transcript.Archived from the original on 2006-05-15. 142. ^ [1] Retrieved 2019-04-05. 143.^ Cincinnatus Honorary Society Nearly Naked Mile Website Archived2017-09-11 atthe Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 144. ^ Men of METRO directory listingat the University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 145. ^ [2]. Retrieved2019-04-05. 146. ^ [3]. Retrieved 2019-04-05. 147. ^ "Ma-Wan-Da Home". Archivedfrom the original on 2011-04-26. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 148. ^ "Senior SkullHonor Society". University of Maine Alumni Association. Archived from theoriginal on May 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 149. ^ "Honors Societies".University of Missouri–Columbia Department of Religious Studies. Archived fromthe original on 2008-05-18. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 150. ^ 151. ^[permanent dead link] 152. ^ 153. ^ "OU College of Engineeringat a Glance". Retrieved 2008-12-08. 154. ^ "Bisonhead at UB". Retrieved 23February 2013.[permanent dead link] 155. ^ "Friars Senior Society of theUniversity of Pennsylvania (Home Page)". Retrieved 2008-05-30. 156. ^ "SphinxSenior Society of the University of Pennsylvania". Archived from the original on2008-05-24. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 157. ^ "Mortar Board Senior Society of theUniversity of Pennsylvania". Retrieved 2009-11-25. 158. ^ Kingkade, Tyler (April18, 2013). "Pitt News Fires Editor For Secret Society Conflict Of Interest". TheHuffington Post. Retrieved September 7, 2013. 159. ^ 160. ^ "The IronCross Society of the University of Wisconsin - Madison". 2019-11-20. 161. ^ "Skulls of Seven Home". Student Life, WestminsterCollege. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 162. ^"The Skull (Home Page)". Retrieved 2008-05-30. 163. ^ "Virtual Tour: SkullTomb". WPI Virtual Tour. Retrieved 2008-05-30. Bibliography[edit] • Robbins,Alexandra (2004). Pledged: The Secret Life of Sororities. New York, NY:Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-8859-7. • Winks, Robin W. (1996). Cloak and Gown:Scholars in the Secret War, 1939-1961. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 2ndedition. ISBN 978-0-300-06524-4. External links[edit] • "How the SecretSocieties Got That Way", Yale Alumni Magazine (September 2004) • "Halls, Tombsand Houses: Student Society Architecture at Dartmouth" • "Four Years at Yale" Alate 19th-century contemporary account of fraternal societies at two ConnecticutUniversities: Yale & Wesleyan (courtesy of Google Books) • The PeterDromgoole legend Categories: • Collegiate secret societies • Student societiesin the United States • Lists of organizations based in North America Navigationmenu • Not logged in • Talk • Contributions • Create account • Log in • Article• Talk • Read • Edit • View history Search • Main page • Contents • Currentevents • Random article • About Wikipedia • Contact us • Donate Contribute •Help • Community portal • Recent changes • Upload file Tools • What links here •Related changes • Special pages • Permanent link • Page information • Wikidataitem • Cite this page Print/export • Download as PDF • Printable versionLanguages • Español • Esperanto Edit links • This page was last edited on 24June 2020, at 17:57 (UTC). • Text is available under the Creative CommonsAttribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site,you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registeredtrademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. PAMSHERMAN ACTRESS PamelaSherman Biography Mini Bio (1) Pamela Sherman is an actress, known for TheAlphabet Killer (2008), Homicide: Life on the Street (1993) and UnsolvedMysteries (1987). See also Other Works | Publicity Listings | Official SitesView agent, publicist, legal and company contact details on IMDbPro GettingStarted | Contributor Zone » Contribute to This Page Pamela Sherman Publicity Itlooks like we don't have any publicity for Pamela Sherman yet. Be the first tocontribute! Just click the "Edit page" button at the bottom of the page or learnmore in the publicity submission guide. YOUNG PRESIDENTS ASSOCIATION romWikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search YoungPresidents' Organization Abbreviation YPO Formation 1950; 70 years ago[citationneeded] Founder Ray Hickok Founded at Rochester, New York Purpose Networking,peer-to-peer learning and idea exchange among peer presidents, chairpersons, orCEO's Membership Over 29,000[citation needed] Subsidiaries Over 460 individualchapters[citation needed] YPO (formerly Young Presidents' Organization) is aglobal leadership community of chief executives with approximately 29,000members in more than 130 countries, according to the organization's 2019 YPOinternational fact sheet. History[edit] YPO was founded in 1950 in Rochester,New York, by manufacturer Ray Hickok, who was 27 years old when he became thehead of his family's Rochester-based Hickok Belt, a 300-employee company. Thefirst meeting was held in 1950 at the Waldorf Astoria New York and was attendedby Robert Wood Johnson III (Johnson & Johnson).[1] Hickok and a small groupof young presidents in the area began meeting regularly to share and learn fromeach other. According to the organization, its founding principle is that ofeducation and idea exchange among peers.[2] • The first non-U.S. chapter wascreated in 1956 in Ontario, Canada. • The first YPO University was held in MiamiBeach, Florida. • YPO merged with its graduate organization, World PresidentsOrganization (WPO), in 2007. • The YPO Global Pulse survey launched in 2009, andis a quarterly economic confidence index that shares business insights fromCEOs.[3][4] • In 2010, Jill Belconis became the first woman elected to serve asYPO-WPO international chairman.[5] • YPO formed an editorial partnership withCNBC in 2012.[6] • Elizabeth Zucker is the 2019-2020 chairman of the YPO Boardof Directors. [7] Demographics[edit] As of 2019, there are more than 450chapters worldwide and more than 28,000 members.[8][9] Membershiprequirements[edit] To qualify for membership, a person must have become, beforeage 45, the president or chairman and chief executive officer of a corporationof significance with a minimum revenue and minimum number of employees. Thefinancial criteria differ for service companies and banks.[1] Candidates must betypically recommended by two members of a local chapter and approved by amembership committee of each local chapter.[1] Past and present notablemembers[edit] • Charles R. Schwab, Founder & CEO, Charles SchwabCorporation[10] • Peter Ueberroth, Chairman, 1984 L.A. Olympic Games, formerCommissioner, Major League Baseball[11] • Bob Galvin, Founder & former CEO,Motorola[12] • Jim Balsille, Co-Founder & former Co-CEO, Research inMotion/Blackberry[13] • Scott Cook, Founder & former CEO, Intuit[citationneeded] • Douglas Fairbanks Jr., founder of United Artists motion picturestudio[10] • Christie Hefner, former CEO, Playboy Enterprises[14] • Ray LeeHunt, Hunt Oil[10] • Robert Wood Johnson II, president of Johnson &Johnson[10] • Ronnie Lott, Pro Football Hall of Famer, Founder & ManagingDirector, HRJ Capital[citation needed] • Leonard Lauder, former CEO, EsteeLauder[10] • Heidi Zak, Founder and CEO, Third Love • Penny Pritzker, USSecretary of Commerce[12] • Muna AbuSulayman, Saudi businesswoman, activist andtelevision personality • Jim Pattison, a Canadian business magnate, investor andphilanthropist • Sheryl Sandberg, COO Facebook[15] • Doug Lebda, CEO LendingTree Jonathan Zucker, CEO 1-Chinaman Co. Ltd. YPO EDGE[edit] YPO hosts itsflagship leadership gathering called YPO EDGE each year in different city. YPOEDGE is YPO’s annual showcase of thought leadership and innovation, bringingtogether visionaries, talented leaders, subject matter experts and unique voicesfrom around the world to engage and inspire all that attend this invitation-onlyevent. Previous host cities include: • 2019 | Cape Town, South Africa[16] • 2018| Singapore[17] Publications[edit] Pat McNees, YPO: The First 50 Years. (OrangeFrazer Press, 1999). ISBN 978-1-882203-59-8 OCLC 1011912188 References[edit] 1.^ Jump up to:a b c Waters, Craig R. (September 1982). "The secret life of YoungPresidents". 2. ^ Hopkins, Mark (1 January 2013). Shortcut toProsperity: 10 Entrepreneurial Habits and a Roadmap for an Exceptional Career.Greenleaf Book Group. p. 206. ISBN 9781608324316. 3. ^ U.S. CEO Expectations.CNBC. Retrieved 2013-12-22.[time needed] 4. ^ Russian Rates Cut Again. CNBC.Retrieved 2013-12-22.[time needed] 5. ^ "Jill Belconis". 2016-02-28.Retrieved 2013-12-22. 6. ^ "YPO & CNBC Enter Exclusive EditorialPartnership" (Press release). 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2013-12-22. 7. ^"Leadership | YPO". YPO. Retrieved 29 February 2020. 8. ^ Slater,Sherry (May 11, 2019). "City native picked as chairman". The Journal Gazette.Retrieved June 24, 2019. 9. ^ "YPO Announces Six Global Impact Award GlobalHonorees". 2020-01-29. 10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Waters, Craig R.(September 1, 1982). "The Secret Life Of Young Presidents". Inc. RetrievedNovember 6, 2015. 11. ^ "Speaker Bio: Peter Ueberroth - Washington SpeakersBureau". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05.12. ^ Jump up to:a b "YPO/Chicago Chapter - About YPO". Archivedfrom the original on 2014-06-27. 13. ^ "Alliance of Chief Executives" (PDF)[page needed] 14. ^ "Speaker Bio: Christie Hefner -Washington Speakers Bureau". Archived from theoriginal on 2011-10-14. 15. ^ "The Premier Leadership Organization of ChiefExecutives in the World". Archived from the original on 2017-10-10. 16. ^ "HowCape Town's YPO 2019 brings meaning to a 'Life of Re' for creative CEOs". July2019. 17. ^ "Why YPO's EDGE Is Coming Back to Singapore". July 2018. Externallinks[edit] • YPO Official Site Categories: • Non-profit organizations based inTexas • International non-profit organizations • Organizations established in1950 Navigation menu • Not logged in • Talk • Contributions • Create account •Log in • Article • Talk • Read • Edit • View history Search • Main page •Contents • Current events • Random article • About Wikipedia • Contact us •Donate Contribute • Help • Community portal • Recent changes • Upload file Tools• What links here • Related changes • Special pages • Permanent link • Pageinformation • Wikidata item • Cite this page Print/export • Download as PDF •Printable version Languages • മലയാളം Edit links • This page was last edited on30 June 2020, at 14:19 (UTC). • Text is available under the Creative CommonsAttribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site,you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registeredtrademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. This wasthe best I could do since Blogger is manipulating my blog 8/14/2020


How does Small Claims Court work in CT? ›

Small Claims Court is a part of Connecticut's court system where a person can sue for money damages only up to $5,000.00 or in the case of a home improvement contract, money damages are limited up to $15,000. That amount is set by state law and may change from time to time.

What is the process of small claims? ›

—A small claims action is commenced by filing with the court an accomplished and verified Statement of Claim (Form 1-SCC) in duplicate, accompanied by a Certification of Non-forum Shopping (Form 1-A, SCC), and two (2) duly certified photocopies of the actionable document/s subject of the claim, as well as the ...

What is the statute of limitations for small claims court in CT? ›

Filing Deadline in Connecticut's Small Claims Courts

The statute of limitations for Connecticut cases is three years for oral contracts and six years for written contracts. You'll have two years for personal injury and personal property damage cases.

What happens if someone doesn't respond to small claims court? ›

If the defendant does not reply to your claim, you can ask the court to enter judgment 'by default' (that is, make an order that the defendant pay you the amount you have claimed because no reply has been received). You should do this as soon as possible after the 14 days have passed.

What happens if you lose in Small Claims Court and don't pay? ›

If you don't pay the amount required even though you're able to, you may be held in contempt of court and imprisoned or given additional costs. Pay the full amount directly to the other party (the "judgment creditor") unless the magistrate has ordered otherwise.

Do you need a lawyer for Small Claims Court? ›

You do not need a lawyer to represent you at a Small Claims Court.

Who pays fees in small claims court? ›

Fees are payable at two key stages. The first is the issue fee the court charges to start the claim. The second is the trial fee. If a defendant wishes to pursue a counterclaim, a fee will need to be paid by the defendant.

Which court has jurisdiction over small claims? ›

If filed within Metro Manila, the Regional Trial Court (RTC) has jurisdiction over cases where the aggregate money claim exceeds P400,000.

Can I sue someone for not returning my money? ›


The lender can file a civil suit for recovering the money he owed through promissory note or loan agreement. He can do so under Order 37 of CPC which allows the lender to file a summary suit. He can file this suit in any high court, City Civil Court, Magistrate Court, Small Causes Court.

How long do you have to sue someone in Connecticut? ›

In the state of Connecticut, plaintiffs must act to recover damages from a defendant within two years of when the relevant incident occurred. Upon learning that the statute of limitations is two years, you may think you have plenty of time.

Does Connecticut have a discovery rule? ›

Gen. Stat. § 52-577a(a). Connecticut applies the discovery rule; therefore, a cause of action does not accrue until the injury is “discovered or in the exercise of reasonable care should have been discovered.” Id.

How long is a judgment good for in CT? ›

How long does a judgment lien last in Connecticut? A judgment lien in Connecticut will remain attached to the debtor's property (even if the property changes hands) for 20 years (for liens on real estate) or five years (liens on personal property).

What evidence do I need for small claims court? ›

Written documents - in the absence of any forgeries, this is normally the best evidence. Judge's prefer documents as documents normally do not lie; Witnesses - it is important you consider what witnesses you can rely on to support your case (in this regard see the process below).

Do you pay costs if you lose in small claims court? ›

What Happens if You Lose in Small Claims Court? The losing party can be liable to pay the winning party's costs, such as their Court fees, loss of wages, and travel costs, on top of their own costs.

What happens if defendant Cannot pay judgment? ›

A warrant of control gives court enforcement agents the authority to take goods from the defendant's home or business. Enforcement agents will try to either: collect the money you are owed. take goods to sell at auction.

What happens after you win a small claims case? ›

If you win your case, you'll get the court fees back as well as the claim, and you can ask for certain expenses. If you win, you can't charge fees for any legal advice to the defendant. So if you pay for legal advice, you're unlikely to get it back.

What happens if a defendant does not respond to a summons? ›

If you fail to respond, the Plaintiff can apply for default judgment to be entered in their favour. It is best to consult an attorney if you receive a summons.

How do you respond to a lawsuit without a lawyer? ›

Below are a few options you can consider:
  1. File an answer. The most common way to respond to a complaint is by filing an answer. ...
  2. Negotiate. Being served with a lawsuit does not automatically mean you need to appear in court. ...
  3. Request more information from the plaintiff. ...
  4. Cross-complain. ...
  5. File a motion to dismiss.

Which matters Cannot be taken to Small Claims Court? ›

You cannot bring forward claims that: • go against a judgement or order of a court. are more than R15 000. are against the State, local municipality or local government. are for the official cancellation of marriage.

What happens after 14 days of Small Claims Court? ›

Once the demand has been delivered and 14 days have elapsed without response, the Clerk will issue a summons and will advise you how to have it served through the Sheriff on the defendant.

Can lawyers represent parties in Small Claims Court? ›

No. Representation by attorneys and advocates is not allowed at the Small Claims Court. You may obtain advice on the merits of your claim from an attorney beforehand. The legal assistants and clerks of the Small Claims Court will be able to assist you free of charge.

Can defendant recover costs on small claims track? ›

In the Small Claims Track, the costs that a losing party will pay to the victor have been restricted by the Civil Procedure Rules to minimise financial risk to parties. Generally therefore, the court will allow the successful party to recover limited costs such as court fees and witness expenses.

How are costs awarded in court? ›

What is a Cost Award? When a court action reaches its end, the judge will generally make a statement about costs, their amount, and which party has to pay them. Basically, a costs award is given to the party that won the lawsuit to help them recoup some of the money that they spent bringing their action.

What is the lowest amount for small claims court? ›

For the most part, there is no minimum you can sue someone for. The limit for the 50 states is usually up to 10,000. Only a few states allow for more than that. Still, the limit on those states only goes up as high as $15,000.

How do you address a judge in small claims court? ›

Generally speaking, when you address a male District Judge (or Deputy) you should call him “Sir” and if female address her as “Madam”.

How do you expedite a civil case? ›

Put an application in the court to expedite the matter stating the reasons. If the court does not listen to you file an application in the high court seeking direction to the lower court to expedite the matter.

How do you determine jurisdiction? ›

Jurisdiction in civil matter either follows the defendant or the action. What this means is that the court with jurisdiction must either be the court in which the cause of action of a matter arose in, or the court which has geographical jurisdiction over the area in which the Defendant of the matter resides or works.

What to do if someone refuses to pay you back? ›

What to Do When Someone Doesn't Pay You Back
  1. Give gentle reminders. People are busy, and sometimes they forget about the money they owe. ...
  2. Renegotiate payment terms. ...
  3. Have them pay you with something else. ...
  4. Get collateral. ...
  5. Offer to help with financial planning. ...
  6. Ask to use their credit card.
24 Mar 2021

What happens when someone borrows money and doesn't pay back? ›

If the person you loaned money to is financially unable to pay and can prove it (whether through bankruptcy or a record of other financial problems), you may be able to write the unpaid debt off as an expense on your taxes. According to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), this is called a bad debt deduction.

How do I file a case for not returning money? ›

In case the person has returned the money through cheque to the lender and later if it is found that the cheque has been bounced, the lender can file a suit under Section 138 of NI Act. Here the person has to repay within 30 days. The lender will file a criminal case against the individual if the later fails.

What is the Sol in CT? ›

Civil Statutes of Limitation

Connecticut's civil statute of limitations laws provide either a two- or three-year time limit for most cases including personal injury, libel and fraud. Some other types of cases and legal issues have longer statutes of limitations.

Where do I file a civil lawsuit in CT? ›

Personally deliver the writ of summons and complaint to the court clerk's office. Every plaintiff must decide within which court to file a lawsuit. For cases worth an amount under $2,500, the plaintiff must utilize the small claims court. For cases worth $2,500 or more, the plaintiff should file in Superior Court.

How do you write a cause of action? ›

Cause of Action Elements
  1. Identity of all parties to the contract.
  2. Identity of the breaching party.
  3. The defendant did something, or failed to do something, required by the contract.
  4. The defendant's actions or inaction caused harm to the plaintiff.
12 Dec 2014

What is Pretrial CT? ›

Pretrial is the time period after an individual has been arrested but before they have been convicted of a crime. During this time period, a pretrial services officer will gather information about the defendant through interviews and record checks.

What is a certificate of closed pleadings Connecticut? ›

If the case has not been disposed of through interlocutory motions, within 10 days after the pleadings are closed, either party must file a certificate of closed pleadings, which notifies the court that the matter is ready for trial. A case may be scheduled for trial at any time by order of the court.

Does Michigan have a discovery rule for statute of limitations? ›

The Discovery Rule. Michigan Statute § 600.5838(2) provides that an action involving a claim based on malpractice may be commenced within six months after the plaintiff discovers or should have discovered the existence of the claim, whichever is later.

How long does a Judgement stay on your credit report? ›

Most judgments remain on credit reports for seven years and six months. If this period of time has passed, you should contact the credit agencies and make sure they remove the judgment.

What is the statute of limitations in Connecticut for credit card debt? ›

Examples include credit cards and home equity lines of credit. Connecticut's statute of limitation on such accounts is six years.

How long does a Judgement last? ›

County court judgements, how long do they last? Unless paid at an earlier date, the county court judgment or CCJ will last 6 years on the Register of Judgments, Fines and orders. If you pay the debt within 6 years, the CCJ or county court judgment will not be removed from the Register altogether.

Can you appeal small claims in CT? ›

There is no appeal from small claims judgments. NOTE: By law, you must start your case within a certain amount of time. If you wait too long to start your case, you may lose your case.

Where do I file a civil lawsuit in CT? ›

Personally deliver the writ of summons and complaint to the court clerk's office. Every plaintiff must decide within which court to file a lawsuit. For cases worth an amount under $2,500, the plaintiff must utilize the small claims court. For cases worth $2,500 or more, the plaintiff should file in Superior Court.

Can a corporation represent itself in small claims court in Connecticut? ›

There is at least one exception to this rule in Connecticut. Section 24-11 of the Superior Court Rules explicitly allows a corporate officer or manager to represent the corporation in small claims court.

How do I sue someone in small claims court in Massachusetts? ›

To file suit, you must fill out a Statement of Claim and Notice form. Get this from the Small Claims Clerk in your district. Your claim may be filed in person or by mail.
Filing your claim
  1. You may sue any person, business, partnership, or corporation. ...
  2. You can only sue for money in Small Claims Court.

What happens if summons not received? ›

If anyone is unresponsive to a summons also known as legal notice the court would respond by or the course of action of the court would be initiating ex-parte legal proceedings which would entail the plaintiff proving his claim through the legal procedure as well as by evidencing supporting his claim.

How long do you have to sue in CT? ›

Generally, you have two years to file a case but there are circumstances where you have much less time to notify the parties that you are intending to sue. For a quasi-governmental agency, you might have notice periods as short as 90 days.

What happens if you don't appear in court for a civil case? ›

Conclusion. The appearance and non-appearance of parties have an effect on the case and whether it will be carried on for the next hearing, dismissed or an ex-parte decree will be given. When none of the parties appears then the suit can be dismissed by the court.

How do you respond to a lawsuit without a lawyer? ›

Below are a few options you can consider:
  1. File an answer. The most common way to respond to a complaint is by filing an answer. ...
  2. Negotiate. Being served with a lawsuit does not automatically mean you need to appear in court. ...
  3. Request more information from the plaintiff. ...
  4. Cross-complain. ...
  5. File a motion to dismiss.

What are examples of civil suits? ›

In the local court, civil cases are dispute about money or property, such as:
  • loan agreements.
  • unpaid bills.
  • damages from a motor vehicle accident.
  • services paid for and not provided.
  • property not returned.
18 Aug 2021

How can I avoid paying a civil Judgement? ›

There are four main ways to not pay a judgment: (1) use statutory exemptions, (2) use protected assets, (3) negotiate with the creditor, or (4) file bankruptcy.

Can an LLC represent itself in court? ›

While an individual is permitted to represent himself or herself in a lawsuit, a corporation is not an individual. Only a person authorized to practice law may appear in court for a corporation. The only exception is small claims court.

Can you sue the Supreme court? ›

Judicial immunity is a form of sovereign immunity, which protects judges and others employed by the judiciary from liability resulting from their judicial actions. Though judges have immunity from lawsuit, in constitutional democracies judicial misconduct or bad personal behaviour is not completely protected.

Can an LLC represent itself in court New York? ›

In general, no. In the courts of the State of New York, adult individuals may prosecute or defend a civil action in person, but a corporation or association may do so only through an attorney.

What is the statute of limitations in Massachusetts for small claims court? ›

You don't have an unlimited amount of time to file a claim. You'll have to bring it within the statute of limitations period for your particular case. For example, the Massachusetts statute of limitations periods is six years for oral and written contracts, and three years for personal injury and property damage cases.

Is the plaintiff the applicant? ›

Applicant The individual, organisation or corporation who/which applies to the Court to start legal proceedings against another person or persons. Also known as 'plaintiff' in admiralty and corporations matters and in some other courts. Application The document that starts most proceedings in the Federal Court.

How much does it cost to take someone to small claims court in Massachusetts? ›

The filing fee for small claims of $500 and under is $40. The filing fee for claims of $501 to $2000 is $50. The filing fee for claims of $2001 to $5000 is $100. The filing fee for claims of $5001 to $7000 is $150.


1. How Personal Injury Lawyers Calculate Settlement | Personal Injury Q&A
(McMinn Law Firm)
2. Navigating Connecticut Firearm Laws
(CCDL Inc)
3. How To Defend Yourself in Court without a Lawyer (and Win): Tips from Award-Winning Lawyer
(Coimbra Law)
4. Cops Pull Over Hells Angels - Watch What Happens Next!
5. We Now Understand Why Frank Is No Longer On American Pickers
6. Court Cam: Man SPITS on Judge, Then Starts Jail Riot | A&E

Top Articles

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Mrs. Angelic Larkin

Last Updated: 01/18/2023

Views: 6422

Rating: 4.7 / 5 (67 voted)

Reviews: 90% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Mrs. Angelic Larkin

Birthday: 1992-06-28

Address: Apt. 413 8275 Mueller Overpass, South Magnolia, IA 99527-6023

Phone: +6824704719725

Job: District Real-Estate Facilitator

Hobby: Letterboxing, Vacation, Poi, Homebrewing, Mountain biking, Slacklining, Cabaret

Introduction: My name is Mrs. Angelic Larkin, I am a cute, charming, funny, determined, inexpensive, joyous, cheerful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.