Systematically explain the 3-Box model of memory - by Atkinson and Shiffrin.? The 3 ? Box Model of Memory: ? The 3- Box Model of Memory ? Richard Atkinson and Richard Shi (2023)

3 pages

Due 6hrs

Cite the book given only

Q.1. Systematically explain the 3-Box model of memory – by Atkinson and Shiffrin.

The 3 – Box Model of Memory:

The 3- Box Model of Memory – Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin

* Sensory Memory – ‘Iconic” Memory, “Echoic” Memory.

* Short- term memory - George Miller’s “The Magical number 7, plus or minus 2. The Serial Position Effect.

* Long-term memory –a) Declarative – Semantic Memory and Episodic Memory. b) Procedural Memory.

Q.2. How would you explain the different Theories of Forgetting?

Forgetting :

1. The Decay Theories.

2. New memories for old - Elizabeth Loftus.

3. Interference Theories – Retroactive and Proactive Interference.

4. Motivated Forgetting – Sigmund Freud.

5. Cue-dependent Forgetting.

  • CaroleWadeCarolTavris-Psychology-Pearson201621.pdf

Psychology Twelfth Edition

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York City San Francisco Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto

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Carole Wade Dominican University of California

Carol Tavris

Alan Swinkels, Contributor St. Edward’s University

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Acknowledgements of third party content appear on page 689, which constitutes an extension of this copyright page.

Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions department, please visit

PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and REVEL are exclusive trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates.

Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this work are the property of their respective owners and any references to third-party trademarks, logos or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates, authors, licensees or distributors.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Wade, Carole (Professor of psychology), author. | Tavris, Carol, author. | Swinkels, Alan, author. Title: Psychology / Carole Wade, Carol Tavris, Alan Swinkels. Description: Twelfth edition. | Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson Education, [2017] Identifiers: LCCN 2015041762| ISBN 9780134240831 | ISBN 0134240839 Subjects: LCSH: Psychology. Classification: LCC BF121 .W27 2017 | DDC 150–dc23 LC record available at

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To Howard, whose support has made it all possible.

Carole Wade

For Ronan, in loving memory.

Carol Tavris

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A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 4 12/11/15 10:24 pm


1 What Is Psychology? 1

2 How Psychologists DoResearch 34

3 Genes, Evolution, and Environment 71

4 The Brain and Nervous System 101

5 Body Rhythms and Mental States 141

6 Sensation and Perception 177

7 Learning and Conditioning 221

8 Behavior in Social and Cultural Context 259

9 Thinking and Intelligence 301

10 Memory 339

11 Emotion, Stress, and Health 379

12 Motivation 418

13 Development over the Lifespan 457

14 Theories of Personality 499

15 Psychological Disorders 537

16 Approaches to Treatment and Therapy 581

Brief Contents

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From the Authors xiii From the Publisher xvii About the Authors xix Authors’ Acknowledgments xxi

1 What Is Psychology? 1 Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion 2

What Psychology Is 3 What Psychology Is Not 4

Thinking Critically and Creatively About Psychology 6 What Is Critical Thinking? 6 Guidelines for Critical Thinking 7

Thinking Critically and Creatively About Psychological Issues 11

Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory 14 The Forerunners of Modern Psychology 14 The Birth of Modern Psychology 15 Three Early Psychologies 16

Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science 18

The Major Perspectives in Psychology 18 Feminist Psychology 20

What Psychologists Do 22 Psychological Research 22 Psychological Practice 23 Psychology in the Community 25

BIOLOGY, CULTURE, and Psychology 26

Taking Psychology with You: The Nine Secrets of Learning 27

Shared Writing Prompt 29

2 How Psychologists Do Research 34 What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? 36

Precision and Reliance on Empirical Evidence 36 Skepticism 37 Willingness to Make “Risky Predictions” 38 Openness 38

Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts 40 Research Participants 40 Case Studies 42 Observational Studies 43 Tests 44 Surveys 46

Correlational Studies: Looking For Relationships 48 Measuring Correlations 48 Cautions about Correlations 49

Experiments: Hunting For Causes 51 Experimental Variables 51 Experimental and Control Conditions 53 Experimenter Effects 54

CULTURE and Research 55

Evaluating the Findings 56 Descriptive Statistics: Finding Out What’s So 56 Inferential Statistics: Asking “So What?” 57 Interpreting the Findings 58

Keeping the Enterprise Ethical 62 The Ethics of Studying Human Beings 62 The Ethics of Studying Animals 63

Taking Psychology with You: Lying with Statistics 65

Shared Writing Prompt 66

3 Genes, Evolution, and Environment 71 Unlocking the Secrets of Genes 73

The Human Genome 73 Epigenetics 75

The Genetics of Similarity 77 Evolution and Natural Selection 77 Innate Human Characteristics 80

Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating 82 Evolution and Sexual Strategies 82 The “Genetic Leash” 83

The Genetics of Difference 86 The Meaning of Heritability 86 Computing Heritability 88

Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence 90 Genes and Individual Differences 90

BIOLOGY and Intellect 91

The Question of Group Differences 91 The Environment and Intelligence 93 Beyond Nature versus Nurture 94

Taking Psychology with You: Should You Have Genetic Testing? 96

Shared Writing Prompt 97

4 The Brain and Nervous System 101 The Nervous System: A Basic Blueprint 103

The Central Nervous System 104 The Peripheral Nervous System 104

Communication in the Nervous System 107 Types of Cells 107 The Structure of the Neuron 107


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viii Contents

Neurogenesis: The Birth of Neurons 108 How Neurons Communicate 110 Chemical Messengers in the Nervous System 111

Mapping the Brain 115 Intervening in the Brain and Observing Behavior 116 Intervening in Behavior and Observing the Brain 116

A Tour Through the Brain 119 The Brain Stem and Cerebellum 120 The Thalamus 121 The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland 121 The Amygdala 121 The Hippocampus 122 The Cerebrum 122 The Cerebral Cortex 122

The Two Hemispheres of the Brain 126 Split Brains: A House Divided 126 The Two Hemispheres: Allies or Opposites? 129

The Flexible Brain 130 Experience and the Brain 130

CULTURE and the Brain 132

Are There “His” and “Hers” Brains? 132

Taking Psychology with You: Cosmetic Neurology: Tinkering with the Brain 136

Shared Writing Prompt 137

5 Body Rhythms and Mental States 141 Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience 143

Circadian Rhythms 143 Moods and Long-Term Rhythms 145


The Rhythms of Sleep 149 The Realms of Sleep 149 Why We Sleep 151

Exploring the Dream World 156 Explanations of Dreaming 156 Evaluating Dream Theories 159

The Riddle of Hypnosis 160 The Nature of Hypnosis 161 Theories of Hypnosis 163

BIOLOGY and Hypnosis 165

Consciousness-Altering Drugs 166 Classifying Drugs 167 The Physiology of Drug Effects 170 The Psychology of Drug Effects 171

Taking Psychology with You: The Drug Debate 173

Shared Writing Prompt 173

6 Sensation and Perception 177 Our Sensational Senses 179

The Riddle of Separate Sensations 180 Measuring the Senses 181

Sensory Adaptation 184 Sensing without Perceiving 185

Vision 186 What We See 186 An Eye on the World 187 Why the Visual System Is Not a Camera 189 How We See Colors 191 Constructing the Visual World 191

Monocular Cues to Depth 195

Hearing 199 What We Hear 199 An Ear on the World 200 Constructing the Auditory World 202

Other Senses 203 Taste: Savory Sensations 203 Smell: The Sense of Scents 205 Senses of the Skin 207 The Mystery of Pain 207 The Environment Within 209

BIOLOGY and the Power of Placebos 210

Perceptual Powers 211 Inborn Abilities and Critical Periods 211 Psychological and Cultural Influences 213 Perception Without Awareness 214

CULTURE and Perception 214

Taking Psychology with You: Extrasensory Perception: Reality or Illusion? 216

Shared Writing Prompt 217

7 Learning and Conditioning 221 Classical Conditioning 223

New Reflexes from Old 223 Principles of Classical Conditioning 225 What Is Actually Learned in Classical Conditioning? 227

Classical Conditioning in Real Life 228 Learning to Like 228 Learning to Fear 229 Accounting for Taste 231 Reacting to Medical Treatments 232

Operant Conditioning 234 The Birth of Radical Behaviorism 234 The Consequences of Behavior 235

Principles of Operant Conditioning 239 The Importance of Responses 239 Skinner: The Man and the Myth 242

Operant Conditioning in Real Life 244 The Pros and Cons of Punishment 244 The Problems with Reward 247

Learning and the Mind 250 Latent Learning 250 Social-Cognitive Learning Theories 251

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Contents ix

Taking Psychology with You: Does Media Violence Make You Violent? 254

Shared Writing Prompt 255

8 Behavior in Social and Cultural Context 259 Social Forces 261

Roles and Rules 261 The Obedience Study 262 The Prison Study 265 Why People Obey 266

Social Influences on Beliefs and Behavior 268 Attributions 268 Attitudes 270

BIOLOGY and Beliefs 273

Persuasion or “Brainwashing”?: The Case of Suicide Bombers 274

Individuals in Groups 276 Conformity 277 Groupthink 278 The Wisdom and Madness of Crowds 279 Altruism and Dissent 281

Us Versus Them: Group Identity 283 Ethnic Identity 283 Ethnocentrism 284 Stereotypes 285

Group Conflict and Prejudice 287 The Origins of Prejudice 288 Defining and Measuring Prejudice 289

The Many Targets of Prejudice 290

Reducing Conflict and Prejudice 293 The Question of Human Nature 294

Taking Psychology with You: Dealing with Cultural Differences 296

Shared Writing Prompt 296

9 Thinking and Intelligence 301 Thought: Using What We Know 302

The Elements of Cognition 303 How Conscious Is Thought? 305 Problem Solving and Decision Making 306 Reasoning Rationally 308

Barriers to Reasoning Rationally 310 Exaggerating the Improbable (and Minimizing the Probable) 310 Avoiding Loss 311 Biases and Mental Sets 311

BIOLOGY and Economic Choice 312

The Need for Cognitive Consistency 313 Overcoming Our Cognitive Biases 315

Measuring Intelligence: The Psychometric Approach 317 Measuring the Invisible 317 The Invention of IQ Tests 318

CULTURE and Intelligence Testing 320

Dissecting Intelligence: The Cognitive Approach 322 Elements of Intelligence 322 Motivation, Hard Work, and Intellectual Success 326

Animal Minds 328 Animal Intelligence 328 Animals and Language 330 Thinking about the Thinking of Animals 331

Taking Psychology with You: Becoming More Creative 333

Shared Writing Prompt 334

10 Memory 339 Reconstructing the Past 341

The Manufacture of Memory 342 The Conditions of Confabulation 344 The Eyewitness on Trial 345 Children’s Testimony 347

In Pursuit of Memory 349 Measuring Memory 349 Models of Memory 350

The Three-Box Model of Memory 352 The Sensory Register: Fleeting Impressions 353 Short-Term Memory: Memory’s Notepad 353 Long-Term Memory: Memory’s Storage System 355

The Biology of Memory 359 Changes in Neurons and Synapses 359 Where Memories Are Made 360 Hormones, Emotion, and Memory 362

How We Remember 364 Encoding, Rehearsal, and Retrieval 364

Why We Forget 367 Mechanisms of Forgetting 367 The Repression Controversy 370 Childhood Amnesia: The Missing Years 372

Taking Psychology with You: Memory and Narrative: The Stories of Our Lives 374

Shared Writing Prompt 374

11 Emotion, Stress, and Health 379 The Nature of Emotion 381

Emotion and the Face 381 Emotion and the Brain 384

BIOLOGY and Lie Detection 387

Emotion and the Mind 388

Emotion and Culture 390 How Culture Shapes Emotions 391 Communicating Emotions 391 Gender and Emotion 392

The Nature of Stress 395 Stress and the Body 395 Stress and the Mind 400

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x Contents

CULTURE and Control 402

Stress and Emotion 403 Hostility and Depression: Do They Hurt? 404 Positive Emotions: Do They Help? 405 Emotional Inhibition and Expression 405

Coping with Stress 408 Solving the Problem 408 Rethinking the Problem 409 Drawing on Social Support 410

Taking Psychology with You: How Much Control Do We Have over Our Emotions and Our Health? 413

Shared Writing Prompt 414

12 Motivation 418 Motivation and the Hungry Animal 420

Defining Motivation 420 The Biology of Weight 420 Environmental Influences on Weight 423 The Body as Battleground: Eating Disorders 424

The Social Animal: Motives to Love 427 The Biology of Love 427 The Psychology of Love 428 Gender, Culture, and Love 431

The Erotic Animal: Motives For Sex 433 The Biology of Desire 433 The Psychology of Desire 436 Gender, Culture, and Sex 438

BIOLOGY and Sexual Orientation 440

The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve 443 The Effects of Motivation on Work 443


The Effects of Work on Motivation 447

Motives, Values, and the Pursuit of Happiness 449 Imagining and Attaining Happiness 449 Should I Stay or Should I Go? 451

Taking Psychology with You: How to Attain Your Goals 453

Shared Writing Prompt 453

13 Development over the Lifespan 457 From Conception Through the First Year 459

Prenatal Development 459 The Infant’s World 461 Attachment 462

Cognitive Development 466 Language 466 Thinking 470

Moral Development 474 Early Views of Moral Development 474 Getting Children to Be Good 476

Gender Development 478 Gender Identity 478 Influences on Gender Development 480

Adolescence 483 The Physiology of Adolescence 483

BIOLOGY and the Adolescent Brain 484

The Psychology of Adolescence 485

Adulthood 487 Stages and Ages 488 The Transitions of Life 490 Old Age 491

Taking Psychology with You: The Wellsprings of Resilience 494

Shared Writing Prompt 495

14 Theories of Personality 499 Psychodynamic Theories of Personality 501

Freud and Psychoanalysis 501 Other Psychodynamic Approaches 504 Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories 505

The Modern Study of Personality 508 Popular Personality Tests 508 Core Personality Traits 509

Rate Your Traits 511

Genetic Influences on Personality 512

BIOLOGY and Animal Traits 512

Heredity and Temperament 512 Heredity and Traits 513 Evaluating Genetic Theories 514

Environmental Influences on Personality 516 Situations and Social Learning 516 Parental Influence—and Its Limits 517 The Power of Peers 518

Cultural Influences on Personality 520 Culture, Values, and Traits 520

CULTURE and Violence 523

Evaluating Cultural Approaches 525

The Inner Experience 526 Humanist Approaches 527 Narrative Approaches 528 Evaluating Humanist and Narrative Approaches 529

Taking Psychology with You: How to Avoid the “Barnum Effect” 531

Shared Writing Prompt 532

15 Psychological Disorders 537 Diagnosing Mental Disorders 539

Dilemmas of Definition 539 Dilemmas of Diagnosis 541

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Contents xi

CULTURE and Mental Illness 543

Dilemmas of Determination 544

Anxiety Disorders 546 Anxiety and Panic 547 Fears and Phobias 548

Trauma and Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders 549 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 550 Obsessions and Compulsions 551

Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 552 Depression 552 Bipolar Disorder 553 Origins of Depression 553

Personality Disorders 556 Borderline Personality Disorder 556 Antisocial Personality Disorder 557 Psychopathy: Myths and Evidence 558

Drug Abuse and Addiction 560 Biology and Addiction 560 Learning, Culture, and Addiction 562

Test Your Motives for Drinking 564

Debating the Causes of Addiction 564

Dissociative Identity Disorder 566 Can You See the Real Me? 566 Putting the Pieces Together 567

Schizophrenia 569 Symptoms of Schizophrenia 569 Origins of Schizophrenia 571

Taking Psychology with You: Mental Disorder and Personal Responsibility 575

Shared Writing Prompt 576

16 Approaches to Treatment and Therapy 581 Biological Treatments for Mental Disorders 582

The Question of Drugs 582 Direct Brain Intervention 588

Major Schools of Psychotherapy 590 Psychodynamic Therapy 590 Behavior and Cognitive Therapy 592 Humanist and Existential Therapy 595 Family and Couples Therapy 596

Evaluating Psychotherapy 599 The Scientist–Practitioner Gap 599

CULTURE and Psychotherapy 601

When Therapy Helps 602

BIOLOGY and Psychotherapy 604

When Therapy Harms 605

Taking Psychology with You: Becoming a Smart Consumer of Psychological Treatments 608

Shared Writing Prompt 610


Glossary 614

References 624

Credits 689

Index 693

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F rom the very first edition of our book, our primary goal has been the integration of critical and scientific thinking into the fabric of our writing, a goal that we believe is more im-

portant now than ever. A textbook is not a laundry list of items, and its writers are not simply reporters. For us, the most import- ant job of an introductory textbook in psychology is to help stu- dents learn to think like a psychologist, and to understand why scientific and critical thinking is so important to the decisions they make in their own lives. Today, for example, the public in general, and students in particular, need to learn about the aston- ishing new developments in neuroscience, but they also need to learn to think intelligently about them. Not all of these develop- ments are as dramatic or applicable as they are often made to ap- pear in the popular press. Not all of the findings that are reported are based on good science, no matter how fancy the tools that produced them.

Changes in the 12th Edition In this 12th edition of Psychology, we have retained the core con- cepts that characterized previous editions—an emphasis on criti- cal thinking, applications to culture and human diversity, insights from research in biology and neuroscience—and added opportu- nities for students to test themselves on the material as they’re learning it. In contrast to the usual “read and cram before tests” approach that students often rely on, we prompt students to read the material and challenge themselves to demonstrate their mas- tery of a section to make sure they understood it correctly.

At the end of Chapter 1, “Taking Psychology with You” is devoted to The Nine Secrets of Learning, a special feature directed to helping students understand and apply effective tech- niques for studying and mastering the material throughout the textbook. In this feature, we reassure students that they need not worry about their particular “learning style,” whether visual or auditory; visualizing material helps everybody, and so does plain old active listening.

As always, in every chapter, we have updated the research to reflect progress in the field and cutting-edge discoveries. Here are a few highlights:

• Emerging techniques for mapping the brain, such as tran- scranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and event-related potentials (ERP).

• New findings from the exciting field of epigenetics and genetic research in general.

• Revised sleep guidelines from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

• The new movement in psychological research to incorporate confidence intervals and Bayesian statistics to improve judg- ments about a finding’s strength, reliability, and importance.

• Integration of DSM-5 terminology and classification systems.

• New findings on how self-confidence and grit contribute to achievement motivation.

• New chapter-opening vignettes that draw on recent real- world events to illustrate psychological principles and spark students’ curiosity.

In addition, all chapter content is mapped to revised learning objectives, which highlight the major concepts throughout each chapter. The complete list of learning objectives for each chapter can be found in the Instructor’s Resource Manual. The Test Bank items are also keyed to these learning objectives.

Goals and Principles From the first edition of this book, five goals and principles have guided our writing. Here they are.

1. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking In a textbook, true critical thinking cannot be reduced to a set of rhetorical questions, a short boxed feature, or a formula for analyzing studies; it is a process that must be woven seamlessly into the narrative. The primary way we “do” critical and creative thinking is by applying a three-pronged approach: We define it, we model it, and we give students a chance to practice it.

The first step is to define what critical thinking is and what it is not. Chapter 1 introduces Eight Guidelines to Critical Thinking, which we draw on throughout the text as we evaluate research and popular ideas.

The second step is to model these guidelines in our evalu- ations of research and popular ideas. Throughout the textbook you’ll find discussions of these critical thinking guidelines as we challenge the reader to evaluate what the evidence reveals—and importantly, does not reveal—about a particular phenomenon. Photo captions, writing prompts, and of course the narrative itself offer opportunities for students to sharpen their critical thinking skills to become active readers (and active learners) of psychology.

The third step is to give students opportunities to practice what we’ve preached. We have changed the Quick Quiz feature that was in previous editions to incorporate new end of module and end of chapter assessment. These tests require more than memorization of definitions; they help students check their progress, measure

From the Authors

A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 13 12/11/15 10:24 pm

xiv From the Authors

their understanding of the material, and encourage them to go back and review what they don’t recall or comprehend. Many quiz questions include critical-thinking items that invite the students to reflect on the implications of findings and consider how psycho- logical principles might illuminate real-life issues.

2. Exploring New Research in Biology andNeuroscience

Findings from the Human Genome Project, studies of behavioral genetics and epigenetics, discoveries about the brain, technolo- gies such as fMRI, and the proliferation of medications for psy- chological disorders—all have had a profound influence on our understanding of human behavior and on interventions to help people with chronic problems. This work cannot be confined to a single chapter. Accordingly, we report new findings from biol- ogy and neuroscience wherever they are relevant throughout the book: in discussions of neurogenesis in the brain, memory, emo- tion, stress, child development, aging, mental illness, personality, and many other topics.

To further emphasize the integration of biology with other areas of research in understanding human problems, many chapters also have a feature called Biology and . . .—for exam- ple, “Biology and Hypnosis,” “Biology and Beliefs,” “Biology and Economic Choice,” and “Biology and the Adolescent Brain.” Although we caution students about the dangers of ignoring bio- logical research, we also caution them about the dangers of reduc- ing complex behaviors solely to biology by overgeneralizing from limited data, failing to consider other explanations, and oversim- plifying solutions. Our goal is to provide students with a structure for interpreting research they will hear or read about in the future.

3. Mainstreaming Culture and Gender At the time of our first edition, some considered our goal of incorporating research on gender and culture into introductory psychology to be quite radical, either a sop to political correct- ness or a fluffy and superficial fad. Today, the issue is no longer whether to include these topics, but how best to do it. From the beginning, our own answer has been to include studies of gender and culture in the main body of the text, wherever they are rele- vant to the larger discussion, rather than relegating these studies to an intellectual ghetto of separate chapters or boxed features. We discuss gender differences—and similarities—in many areas, from the brain, emotion, and motivation to heroism, sexuality, love, and eating disorders.

Over the years, most psychologists have come to appreci- ate the influence of culture on all aspects of life, from nonverbal behavior to the deepest attitudes about how the world should be. We present empirical findings about culture and ethnicity as topics warrant throughout the book. In addition, Chapter8 highlights the sociocultural perspective in psychology and includes extended discussions of ethnocentrism, prejudice, and cross-cultural relations. However, the scientific study of cul- tural diversity is not synonymous with the popular movement

called multiculturalism. The study of culture, in our view, should increase students’ understanding of what culture means, how and why ethnic and national groups differ, and why no group is inherently better, kinder, or more moral than another. Thus, we try to apply critical thinking to our own coverage of culture, avoiding the twin temptations of ethnocentrism and stereotyping.

To highlight the importance of culture, many chapters con- tain a feature (comparable to “Biology and . . .”) called Culture and . . . —for example, “Culture and the Brain,” “Culture and Psychotherapy,” “Culture and the Ideal Body,” and “Culture and Mental Disorder.”

4. Facing the Controversies Psychology has always been full of lively, sometimes angry, debates, and we feel that students should not be sheltered from them. They are what make psychology so interesting! In this book, we candidly address controversies in the field of psychol- ogy, try to show why they are occurring, and suggest the kinds of questions that might lead to useful answers in each case. For example, we discuss the controversies about evolutionary psy- chology’s explanations of human dating and mating practices (Chapter 3); limitations and the oversimplification of brain- scan technology (Chapter 4); the disease versus learning mod- els of addiction (Chapter 15); the extent of parents’ influence on their children’s personality development (Chapters 13 and 14); conflicts of interest in research on medication for psychological disorders (Chapter 16); and the scientist-practitioner gap in psy- chotherapy (Chapter 16).

5. Applications and Active Learning Finally, throughout this book, we have kept in mind one of the soundest findings about learning: It requires the active encoding of material. Several pedagogical features in particular encourage students to become actively involved in what they are reading.

You Are about to Learn . . . consists of a set of learning objec- tives that cover each major section within a chapter.

Other pedagogical features designed to help students study and learn better include review tables; a running glossary that defines boldfaced technical terms on the pages where they occur for handy reference and study; a cumulative glossary at the back of the book; a list of key terms at the end of each chapter that includes page numbers so that students can find the secti Plagiarism Free Papers

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What is the 3 box model Atkinson & Shiffrin of memory? ›

The multi-store model of memory (also known as the modal model) was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968) and is a structural model. They proposed that memory consisted of three stores: a sensory register, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM).

What are the three stages of Atkinson and Shiffrin's model? ›

In order for a memory to go into storage (i.e., long-term memory), it has to pass through three distinct stages: Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory, and finally Long-Term Memory. These stages were first proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968).

What is cognitive model of memory describe about the Atkinson shiffrin model? ›

In summary, the Atkinson & Shiffrin model of memory suggests that memory is made up of three parts: the sensory register, short-term memory and long-term memory. It's sometimes called 'two-store' because once memories have gone through the sensory register, they can be stored in either short-term or long-term memory.

How does the Atkinson shiffrin theory explain memory storage? ›

What is Atkinson–Shiffrin Memory Model | Explained in 2 min - YouTube

What is the Atkinson shiffrin model of memory quizlet? ›

a model that represents memory as consisting of three separate components called the sensory register, the short term store and long term store, and distinguishes between structural features and control processes.

What are the 3 models of memory? ›

A structural model that suggests three storage systems (places); Sensory Store, Short-Term Memory (STM), Long-Term Memory (LTM).

What is the 3 step process of memory? ›

Our discussion will focus on the three processes that are central to long-term memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval.

What are the three steps in memory information processing? ›

Our discussion will focus on the three processes that are central to long-term memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval.

What is the third stage of the stage model of memory? ›

There are two main types of memory, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The third stage is retrieval. Retrieving information can be done through association or through questioning.

What is short-term memory Atkinson and Shiffrin? ›

Short-term memory (STM) is the second stage of the multi-store memory model proposed by the Atkinson-Shiffrin. The duration of STM seems to be between 15 and 30 seconds, and the capacity about 7 items.

What is the main idea of levels of processing theory? ›

The levels of processing model counters the idea that mere repetition helps us retain information long-term. Instead, it suggests that information that is encoded on a deeper level, through meaningful association, is easier to remember.

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