Cite the book given only
Q.1. Systematically explain the 3-Box model of memory – by Atkinson and Shiffrin.
The 3 – Box Model of Memory:
The 3- Box Model of Memory – Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin
* Sensory Memory – ‘Iconic” Memory, “Echoic” Memory.
* Short- term memory - George Miller’s “The Magical number 7, plus or minus 2. The Serial Position Effect.
* Long-term memory –a) Declarative – Semantic Memory and Episodic Memory. b) Procedural Memory.
Q.2. How would you explain the different Theories of Forgetting?
1. The Decay Theories.
2. New memories for old - Elizabeth Loftus.
3. Interference Theories – Retroactive and Proactive Interference.
4. Motivated Forgetting – Sigmund Freud.
5. Cue-dependent Forgetting.
Psychology Twelfth Edition
Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo
Carole Wade Dominican University of California
Alan Swinkels, Contributor St. Edward’s University
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 1 12/11/15 10:24 pm
Acknowledgements of third party content appear on page 689, which constitutes an extension of this copyright page.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions department, please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/.
PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and REVEL are exclusive trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates.
Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this work are the property of their respective owners and any references to third-party trademarks, logos or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates, authors, licensees or distributors.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Wade, Carole (Professor of psychology), author. | Tavris, Carol, author. | Swinkels, Alan, author. Title: Psychology / Carole Wade, Carol Tavris, Alan Swinkels. Description: Twelfth edition. | Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson Education,  Identifiers: LCCN 2015041762| ISBN 9780134240831 | ISBN 0134240839 Subjects: LCSH: Psychology. Classification: LCC BF121 .W27 2017 | DDC 150–dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015041762
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Student Edition ISBN-10: 0-13-424083-9 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-424083-1
Books a la Carte ISBN-10: 0-13-437779-6 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-437779-7
VP, Product Development: Dickson Musslewhite Executive Editor: Erin Mitchell Editorial Assistant: Danique Robinson Director, Content Strategy and Development: Brita Nordin Development Editor: Shannon LeMay-Finn VP Marketing: Maggie Moylan Director, Project Management Services: Lisa Iarkowski Project Team Lead: Denise Forlow Project Manager: Sherry Lewis Program Team Lead: Amber Mackey Program Manager: Reena Dalal Director of Field Marketing: Jonathan Cottrell Senior Product Marketing Manager: Lindsey Prudhomme Gill Executive Field Marketing Manager: Kate Stewart Marketing Assistant, Field Marketing: Amy Pfund
Marketing Assistant, Product Marketing: Frank Alarcon Operations Manager: Mary Fischer Senior Operations Specialist: Diane Peirano Associate Director of Design: Blair Brown Interior Design: Kathryn Foot Cover Art Director: Maria Lange Cover Design: Lumina Datamatics Cover Art: Comstock Images/Stockbyte/Getty Images 98276187 Digital Studio Product Manager: Caroline Fenton Digital Studio Project Manager: Pamela Weldin Digital Studio Team Lead: Peggy Bliss Full-Service Project Management and Composition: SPi Global, Patty Donovan Printer/Binder: RR Donnelley/Kendallville Cover Printer: Phoenix Color/Hagerstown
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 2 12/11/15 10:24 pm
To Howard, whose support has made it all possible.
For Ronan, in loving memory.
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 3 12/11/15 10:24 pm
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 4 12/11/15 10:24 pm
1 What Is Psychology? 1
2 How Psychologists DoResearch 34
3 Genes, Evolution, and Environment 71
4 The Brain and Nervous System 101
5 Body Rhythms and Mental States 141
6 Sensation and Perception 177
7 Learning and Conditioning 221
8 Behavior in Social and Cultural Context 259
9 Thinking and Intelligence 301
10 Memory 339
11 Emotion, Stress, and Health 379
12 Motivation 418
13 Development over the Lifespan 457
14 Theories of Personality 499
15 Psychological Disorders 537
16 Approaches to Treatment and Therapy 581
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 5 12/11/15 10:24 pm
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 6 12/11/15 10:24 pm
From the Authors xiii From the Publisher xvii About the Authors xix Authors’ Acknowledgments xxi
1 What Is Psychology? 1 Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion 2
What Psychology Is 3 What Psychology Is Not 4
Thinking Critically and Creatively About Psychology 6 What Is Critical Thinking? 6 Guidelines for Critical Thinking 7
Thinking Critically and Creatively About Psychological Issues 11
Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory 14 The Forerunners of Modern Psychology 14 The Birth of Modern Psychology 15 Three Early Psychologies 16
Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science 18
The Major Perspectives in Psychology 18 Feminist Psychology 20
What Psychologists Do 22 Psychological Research 22 Psychological Practice 23 Psychology in the Community 25
BIOLOGY, CULTURE, and Psychology 26
Taking Psychology with You: The Nine Secrets of Learning 27
Shared Writing Prompt 29
2 How Psychologists Do Research 34 What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? 36
Precision and Reliance on Empirical Evidence 36 Skepticism 37 Willingness to Make “Risky Predictions” 38 Openness 38
Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts 40 Research Participants 40 Case Studies 42 Observational Studies 43 Tests 44 Surveys 46
Correlational Studies: Looking For Relationships 48 Measuring Correlations 48 Cautions about Correlations 49
Experiments: Hunting For Causes 51 Experimental Variables 51 Experimental and Control Conditions 53 Experimenter Effects 54
CULTURE and Research 55
Evaluating the Findings 56 Descriptive Statistics: Finding Out What’s So 56 Inferential Statistics: Asking “So What?” 57 Interpreting the Findings 58
Keeping the Enterprise Ethical 62 The Ethics of Studying Human Beings 62 The Ethics of Studying Animals 63
Taking Psychology with You: Lying with Statistics 65
Shared Writing Prompt 66
3 Genes, Evolution, and Environment 71 Unlocking the Secrets of Genes 73
The Human Genome 73 Epigenetics 75
The Genetics of Similarity 77 Evolution and Natural Selection 77 Innate Human Characteristics 80
Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating 82 Evolution and Sexual Strategies 82 The “Genetic Leash” 83
The Genetics of Difference 86 The Meaning of Heritability 86 Computing Heritability 88
Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence 90 Genes and Individual Differences 90
BIOLOGY and Intellect 91
The Question of Group Differences 91 The Environment and Intelligence 93 Beyond Nature versus Nurture 94
Taking Psychology with You: Should You Have Genetic Testing? 96
Shared Writing Prompt 97
4 The Brain and Nervous System 101 The Nervous System: A Basic Blueprint 103
The Central Nervous System 104 The Peripheral Nervous System 104
Communication in the Nervous System 107 Types of Cells 107 The Structure of the Neuron 107
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 7 12/11/15 10:24 pm
Neurogenesis: The Birth of Neurons 108 How Neurons Communicate 110 Chemical Messengers in the Nervous System 111
Mapping the Brain 115 Intervening in the Brain and Observing Behavior 116 Intervening in Behavior and Observing the Brain 116
A Tour Through the Brain 119 The Brain Stem and Cerebellum 120 The Thalamus 121 The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland 121 The Amygdala 121 The Hippocampus 122 The Cerebrum 122 The Cerebral Cortex 122
The Two Hemispheres of the Brain 126 Split Brains: A House Divided 126 The Two Hemispheres: Allies or Opposites? 129
The Flexible Brain 130 Experience and the Brain 130
CULTURE and the Brain 132
Are There “His” and “Hers” Brains? 132
Taking Psychology with You: Cosmetic Neurology: Tinkering with the Brain 136
Shared Writing Prompt 137
5 Body Rhythms and Mental States 141 Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience 143
Circadian Rhythms 143 Moods and Long-Term Rhythms 145
CULTURE and PMS 147
The Rhythms of Sleep 149 The Realms of Sleep 149 Why We Sleep 151
Exploring the Dream World 156 Explanations of Dreaming 156 Evaluating Dream Theories 159
The Riddle of Hypnosis 160 The Nature of Hypnosis 161 Theories of Hypnosis 163
BIOLOGY and Hypnosis 165
Taking Psychology with You: The Drug Debate 173
Shared Writing Prompt 173
6 Sensation and Perception 177 Our Sensational Senses 179
The Riddle of Separate Sensations 180 Measuring the Senses 181
Sensory Adaptation 184 Sensing without Perceiving 185
Vision 186 What We See 186 An Eye on the World 187 Why the Visual System Is Not a Camera 189 How We See Colors 191 Constructing the Visual World 191
Monocular Cues to Depth 195
Hearing 199 What We Hear 199 An Ear on the World 200 Constructing the Auditory World 202
Other Senses 203 Taste: Savory Sensations 203 Smell: The Sense of Scents 205 Senses of the Skin 207 The Mystery of Pain 207 The Environment Within 209
BIOLOGY and the Power of Placebos 210
Perceptual Powers 211 Inborn Abilities and Critical Periods 211 Psychological and Cultural Influences 213 Perception Without Awareness 214
CULTURE and Perception 214
Taking Psychology with You: Extrasensory Perception: Reality or Illusion? 216
Shared Writing Prompt 217
7 Learning and Conditioning 221 Classical Conditioning 223
New Reflexes from Old 223 Principles of Classical Conditioning 225 What Is Actually Learned in Classical Conditioning? 227
Classical Conditioning in Real Life 228 Learning to Like 228 Learning to Fear 229 Accounting for Taste 231 Reacting to Medical Treatments 232
Operant Conditioning 234 The Birth of Radical Behaviorism 234 The Consequences of Behavior 235
Principles of Operant Conditioning 239 The Importance of Responses 239 Skinner: The Man and the Myth 242
Operant Conditioning in Real Life 244 The Pros and Cons of Punishment 244 The Problems with Reward 247
Learning and the Mind 250 Latent Learning 250 Social-Cognitive Learning Theories 251
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 8 12/11/15 10:24 pm
Taking Psychology with You: Does Media Violence Make You Violent? 254
Shared Writing Prompt 255
8 Behavior in Social and Cultural Context 259 Social Forces 261
Roles and Rules 261 The Obedience Study 262 The Prison Study 265 Why People Obey 266
Social Influences on Beliefs and Behavior 268 Attributions 268 Attitudes 270
BIOLOGY and Beliefs 273
Persuasion or “Brainwashing”?: The Case of Suicide Bombers 274
Individuals in Groups 276 Conformity 277 Groupthink 278 The Wisdom and Madness of Crowds 279 Altruism and Dissent 281
Us Versus Them: Group Identity 283 Ethnic Identity 283 Ethnocentrism 284 Stereotypes 285
Group Conflict and Prejudice 287 The Origins of Prejudice 288 Defining and Measuring Prejudice 289
The Many Targets of Prejudice 290
Reducing Conflict and Prejudice 293 The Question of Human Nature 294
Taking Psychology with You: Dealing with Cultural Differences 296
Shared Writing Prompt 296
9 Thinking and Intelligence 301 Thought: Using What We Know 302
The Elements of Cognition 303 How Conscious Is Thought? 305 Problem Solving and Decision Making 306 Reasoning Rationally 308
BIOLOGY and Economic Choice 312
The Need for Cognitive Consistency 313 Overcoming Our Cognitive Biases 315
Measuring Intelligence: The Psychometric Approach 317 Measuring the Invisible 317 The Invention of IQ Tests 318
CULTURE and Intelligence Testing 320
Dissecting Intelligence: The Cognitive Approach 322 Elements of Intelligence 322 Motivation, Hard Work, and Intellectual Success 326
Taking Psychology with You: Becoming More Creative 333
Shared Writing Prompt 334
10 Memory 339 Reconstructing the Past 341
The Manufacture of Memory 342 The Conditions of Confabulation 344 The Eyewitness on Trial 345 Children’s Testimony 347
In Pursuit of Memory 349 Measuring Memory 349 Models of Memory 350
The Three-Box Model of Memory 352 The Sensory Register: Fleeting Impressions 353 Short-Term Memory: Memory’s Notepad 353 Long-Term Memory: Memory’s Storage System 355
The Biology of Memory 359 Changes in Neurons and Synapses 359 Where Memories Are Made 360 Hormones, Emotion, and Memory 362
How We Remember 364 Encoding, Rehearsal, and Retrieval 364
Why We Forget 367 Mechanisms of Forgetting 367 The Repression Controversy 370 Childhood Amnesia: The Missing Years 372
Taking Psychology with You: Memory and Narrative: The Stories of Our Lives 374
Shared Writing Prompt 374
11 Emotion, Stress, and Health 379 The Nature of Emotion 381
Emotion and the Face 381 Emotion and the Brain 384
BIOLOGY and Lie Detection 387
Emotion and the Mind 388
Emotion and Culture 390 How Culture Shapes Emotions 391 Communicating Emotions 391 Gender and Emotion 392
The Nature of Stress 395 Stress and the Body 395 Stress and the Mind 400
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 9 12/11/15 10:24 pm
CULTURE and Control 402
Stress and Emotion 403 Hostility and Depression: Do They Hurt? 404 Positive Emotions: Do They Help? 405 Emotional Inhibition and Expression 405
Coping with Stress 408 Solving the Problem 408 Rethinking the Problem 409 Drawing on Social Support 410
Taking Psychology with You: How Much Control Do We Have over Our Emotions and Our Health? 413
Shared Writing Prompt 414
12 Motivation 418 Motivation and the Hungry Animal 420
Defining Motivation 420 The Biology of Weight 420 Environmental Influences on Weight 423 The Body as Battleground: Eating Disorders 424
The Social Animal: Motives to Love 427 The Biology of Love 427 The Psychology of Love 428 Gender, Culture, and Love 431
The Erotic Animal: Motives For Sex 433 The Biology of Desire 433 The Psychology of Desire 436 Gender, Culture, and Sex 438
BIOLOGY and Sexual Orientation 440
The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve 443 The Effects of Motivation on Work 443
THE MANY MOTIVES Of ACCOMPLISHMENT 445
The Effects of Work on Motivation 447
Motives, Values, and the Pursuit of Happiness 449 Imagining and Attaining Happiness 449 Should I Stay or Should I Go? 451
Taking Psychology with You: How to Attain Your Goals 453
Shared Writing Prompt 453
13 Development over the Lifespan 457 From Conception Through the First Year 459
Prenatal Development 459 The Infant’s World 461 Attachment 462
Cognitive Development 466 Language 466 Thinking 470
Moral Development 474 Early Views of Moral Development 474 Getting Children to Be Good 476
Gender Development 478 Gender Identity 478 Influences on Gender Development 480
Adolescence 483 The Physiology of Adolescence 483
BIOLOGY and the Adolescent Brain 484
The Psychology of Adolescence 485
Adulthood 487 Stages and Ages 488 The Transitions of Life 490 Old Age 491
Taking Psychology with You: The Wellsprings of Resilience 494
Shared Writing Prompt 495
14 Theories of Personality 499 Psychodynamic Theories of Personality 501
Freud and Psychoanalysis 501 Other Psychodynamic Approaches 504 Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories 505
The Modern Study of Personality 508 Popular Personality Tests 508 Core Personality Traits 509
Rate Your Traits 511
Genetic Influences on Personality 512
BIOLOGY and Animal Traits 512
Heredity and Temperament 512 Heredity and Traits 513 Evaluating Genetic Theories 514
Environmental Influences on Personality 516 Situations and Social Learning 516 Parental Influence—and Its Limits 517 The Power of Peers 518
Cultural Influences on Personality 520 Culture, Values, and Traits 520
CULTURE and Violence 523
Evaluating Cultural Approaches 525
The Inner Experience 526 Humanist Approaches 527 Narrative Approaches 528 Evaluating Humanist and Narrative Approaches 529
Taking Psychology with You: How to Avoid the “Barnum Effect” 531
Shared Writing Prompt 532
15 Psychological Disorders 537 Diagnosing Mental Disorders 539
Dilemmas of Definition 539 Dilemmas of Diagnosis 541
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 10 12/11/15 10:24 pm
CULTURE and Mental Illness 543
Dilemmas of Determination 544
Anxiety Disorders 546 Anxiety and Panic 547 Fears and Phobias 548
Trauma and Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders 549 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 550 Obsessions and Compulsions 551
Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 552 Depression 552 Bipolar Disorder 553 Origins of Depression 553
Personality Disorders 556 Borderline Personality Disorder 556 Antisocial Personality Disorder 557 Psychopathy: Myths and Evidence 558
Drug Abuse and Addiction 560 Biology and Addiction 560 Learning, Culture, and Addiction 562
Test Your Motives for Drinking 564
Debating the Causes of Addiction 564
Dissociative Identity Disorder 566 Can You See the Real Me? 566 Putting the Pieces Together 567
Schizophrenia 569 Symptoms of Schizophrenia 569 Origins of Schizophrenia 571
Taking Psychology with You: Mental Disorder and Personal Responsibility 575
Shared Writing Prompt 576
16 Approaches to Treatment and Therapy 581 Biological Treatments for Mental Disorders 582
The Question of Drugs 582 Direct Brain Intervention 588
Major Schools of Psychotherapy 590 Psychodynamic Therapy 590 Behavior and Cognitive Therapy 592 Humanist and Existential Therapy 595 Family and Couples Therapy 596
Evaluating Psychotherapy 599 The Scientist–Practitioner Gap 599
CULTURE and Psychotherapy 601
When Therapy Helps 602
BIOLOGY and Psychotherapy 604
When Therapy Harms 605
Taking Psychology with You: Becoming a Smart Consumer of Psychological Treatments 608
Shared Writing Prompt 610
Epilogue TAKING THIS BOOK WITH YOU 610
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 11 12/11/15 10:24 pm
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 12 12/11/15 10:24 pm
F rom the very first edition of our book, our primary goal has been the integration of critical and scientific thinking into the fabric of our writing, a goal that we believe is more im-
portant now than ever. A textbook is not a laundry list of items, and its writers are not simply reporters. For us, the most import- ant job of an introductory textbook in psychology is to help stu- dents learn to think like a psychologist, and to understand why scientific and critical thinking is so important to the decisions they make in their own lives. Today, for example, the public in general, and students in particular, need to learn about the aston- ishing new developments in neuroscience, but they also need to learn to think intelligently about them. Not all of these develop- ments are as dramatic or applicable as they are often made to ap- pear in the popular press. Not all of the findings that are reported are based on good science, no matter how fancy the tools that produced them.
Changes in the 12th Edition In this 12th edition of Psychology, we have retained the core con- cepts that characterized previous editions—an emphasis on criti- cal thinking, applications to culture and human diversity, insights from research in biology and neuroscience—and added opportu- nities for students to test themselves on the material as they’re learning it. In contrast to the usual “read and cram before tests” approach that students often rely on, we prompt students to read the material and challenge themselves to demonstrate their mas- tery of a section to make sure they understood it correctly.
At the end of Chapter 1, “Taking Psychology with You” is devoted to The Nine Secrets of Learning, a special feature directed to helping students understand and apply effective tech- niques for studying and mastering the material throughout the textbook. In this feature, we reassure students that they need not worry about their particular “learning style,” whether visual or auditory; visualizing material helps everybody, and so does plain old active listening.
As always, in every chapter, we have updated the research to reflect progress in the field and cutting-edge discoveries. Here are a few highlights:
• Emerging techniques for mapping the brain, such as tran- scranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and event-related potentials (ERP).
• New findings from the exciting field of epigenetics and genetic research in general.
• Revised sleep guidelines from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
• The new movement in psychological research to incorporate confidence intervals and Bayesian statistics to improve judg- ments about a finding’s strength, reliability, and importance.
• Integration of DSM-5 terminology and classification systems.
• New findings on how self-confidence and grit contribute to achievement motivation.
• New chapter-opening vignettes that draw on recent real- world events to illustrate psychological principles and spark students’ curiosity.
In addition, all chapter content is mapped to revised learning objectives, which highlight the major concepts throughout each chapter. The complete list of learning objectives for each chapter can be found in the Instructor’s Resource Manual. The Test Bank items are also keyed to these learning objectives.
Goals and Principles From the first edition of this book, five goals and principles have guided our writing. Here they are.
1. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking In a textbook, true critical thinking cannot be reduced to a set of rhetorical questions, a short boxed feature, or a formula for analyzing studies; it is a process that must be woven seamlessly into the narrative. The primary way we “do” critical and creative thinking is by applying a three-pronged approach: We define it, we model it, and we give students a chance to practice it.
The first step is to define what critical thinking is and what it is not. Chapter 1 introduces Eight Guidelines to Critical Thinking, which we draw on throughout the text as we evaluate research and popular ideas.
The second step is to model these guidelines in our evalu- ations of research and popular ideas. Throughout the textbook you’ll find discussions of these critical thinking guidelines as we challenge the reader to evaluate what the evidence reveals—and importantly, does not reveal—about a particular phenomenon. Photo captions, writing prompts, and of course the narrative itself offer opportunities for students to sharpen their critical thinking skills to become active readers (and active learners) of psychology.
The third step is to give students opportunities to practice what we’ve preached. We have changed the Quick Quiz feature that was in previous editions to incorporate new end of module and end of chapter assessment. These tests require more than memorization of definitions; they help students check their progress, measure
From the Authors
A01_WADE7797_12_SE_FM.indd 13 12/11/15 10:24 pm
xiv From the Authors
their understanding of the material, and encourage them to go back and review what they don’t recall or comprehend. Many quiz questions include critical-thinking items that invite the students to reflect on the implications of findings and consider how psycho- logical principles might illuminate real-life issues.
2. Exploring New Research in Biology andNeuroscience
Findings from the Human Genome Project, studies of behavioral genetics and epigenetics, discoveries about the brain, technolo- gies such as fMRI, and the proliferation of medications for psy- chological disorders—all have had a profound influence on our understanding of human behavior and on interventions to help people with chronic problems. This work cannot be confined to a single chapter. Accordingly, we report new findings from biol- ogy and neuroscience wherever they are relevant throughout the book: in discussions of neurogenesis in the brain, memory, emo- tion, stress, child development, aging, mental illness, personality, and many other topics.
To further emphasize the integration of biology with other areas of research in understanding human problems, many chapters also have a feature called Biology and . . .—for exam- ple, “Biology and Hypnosis,” “Biology and Beliefs,” “Biology and Economic Choice,” and “Biology and the Adolescent Brain.” Although we caution students about the dangers of ignoring bio- logical research, we also caution them about the dangers of reduc- ing complex behaviors solely to biology by overgeneralizing from limited data, failing to consider other explanations, and oversim- plifying solutions. Our goal is to provide students with a structure for interpreting research they will hear or read about in the future.
3. Mainstreaming Culture and Gender At the time of our first edition, some considered our goal of incorporating research on gender and culture into introductory psychology to be quite radical, either a sop to political correct- ness or a fluffy and superficial fad. Today, the issue is no longer whether to include these topics, but how best to do it. From the beginning, our own answer has been to include studies of gender and culture in the main body of the text, wherever they are rele- vant to the larger discussion, rather than relegating these studies to an intellectual ghetto of separate chapters or boxed features. We discuss gender differences—and similarities—in many areas, from the brain, emotion, and motivation to heroism, sexuality, love, and eating disorders.
Over the years, most psychologists have come to appreci- ate the influence of culture on all aspects of life, from nonverbal behavior to the deepest attitudes about how the world should be. We present empirical findings about culture and ethnicity as topics warrant throughout the book. In addition, Chapter8 highlights the sociocultural perspective in psychology and includes extended discussions of ethnocentrism, prejudice, and cross-cultural relations. However, the scientific study of cul- tural diversity is not synonymous with the popular movement
called multiculturalism. The study of culture, in our view, should increase students’ understanding of what culture means, how and why ethnic and national groups differ, and why no group is inherently better, kinder, or more moral than another. Thus, we try to apply critical thinking to our own coverage of culture, avoiding the twin temptations of ethnocentrism and stereotyping.
To highlight the importance of culture, many chapters con- tain a feature (comparable to “Biology and . . .”) called Culture and . . . —for example, “Culture and the Brain,” “Culture and Psychotherapy,” “Culture and the Ideal Body,” and “Culture and Mental Disorder.”
4. Facing the Controversies Psychology has always been full of lively, sometimes angry, debates, and we feel that students should not be sheltered from them. They are what make psychology so interesting! In this book, we candidly address controversies in the field of psychol- ogy, try to show why they are occurring, and suggest the kinds of questions that might lead to useful answers in each case. For example, we discuss the controversies about evolutionary psy- chology’s explanations of human dating and mating practices (Chapter 3); limitations and the oversimplification of brain- scan technology (Chapter 4); the disease versus learning mod- els of addiction (Chapter 15); the extent of parents’ influence on their children’s personality development (Chapters 13 and 14); conflicts of interest in research on medication for psychological disorders (Chapter 16); and the scientist-practitioner gap in psy- chotherapy (Chapter 16).
5. Applications and Active Learning Finally, throughout this book, we have kept in mind one of the soundest findings about learning: It requires the active encoding of material. Several pedagogical features in particular encourage students to become actively involved in what they are reading.
You Are about to Learn . . . consists of a set of learning objec- tives that cover each major section within a chapter.
Other pedagogical features designed to help students study and learn better include review tables; a running glossary that defines boldfaced technical terms on the pages where they occur for handy reference and study; a cumulative glossary at the back of the book; a list of key terms at the end of each chapter that includes page numbers so that students can find the secti
Collepals.com Plagiarism Free Papers
Are you looking for custom essay writing service or even dissertation writing services? Just request for our write my paper service, and we\'ll match you with the best essay writer in your subject! With an exceptional team of professional academic experts in a wide range of subjects, we can guarantee you an unrivaled quality of custom-written papers.
Why Hire Collepals.com writers to do your paper?
Quality- We are experienced and have access to ample research materials.
We write plagiarism Free Content
Confidential- We never share or sell your personal information to third parties.
Support-Chat with us today! We are always waiting to answer all your questions.
The multi-store model of memory (also known as the modal model) was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968) and is a structural model. They proposed that memory consisted of three stores: a sensory register, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM).
In order for a memory to go into storage (i.e., long-term memory), it has to pass through three distinct stages: Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory, and finally Long-Term Memory. These stages were first proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968).
In summary, the Atkinson & Shiffrin model of memory suggests that memory is made up of three parts: the sensory register, short-term memory and long-term memory. It's sometimes called 'two-store' because once memories have gone through the sensory register, they can be stored in either short-term or long-term memory.
What is Atkinson–Shiffrin Memory Model | Explained in 2 min - YouTube
a model that represents memory as consisting of three separate components called the sensory register, the short term store and long term store, and distinguishes between structural features and control processes.
A structural model that suggests three storage systems (places); Sensory Store, Short-Term Memory (STM), Long-Term Memory (LTM).
Our discussion will focus on the three processes that are central to long-term memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Our discussion will focus on the three processes that are central to long-term memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval.
There are two main types of memory, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The third stage is retrieval. Retrieving information can be done through association or through questioning.
Short-term memory (STM) is the second stage of the multi-store memory model proposed by the Atkinson-Shiffrin. The duration of STM seems to be between 15 and 30 seconds, and the capacity about 7 items.
The levels of processing model counters the idea that mere repetition helps us retain information long-term. Instead, it suggests that information that is encoded on a deeper level, through meaningful association, is easier to remember.